XRD and XRF Analysis of the ancient bricks from Candi Kampung Baru, Kedah

Zuliskandar Ramli, Muhammad Nu man Mohd Nasir, Abdul Latif Samian, Nor Zalina Harun, Mohd Shamsul Bahari Abdul Hadi, Nuratikah Abu Bakar, Nur Sarahah Mohd Supian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

XRD and XRF analysis on the ancient bricks were conducted to identify whether the raw materials to produce the bricks originate from the site. Candi Kampung Baru is recorded as one of the temple that used bricks as the main construction material. This site is suggested to be built between the 8th to 10th centuries AD based on the size of the bricks and imported ceramics associated with the structure. The position of this candi that is facing to the north is a major indication that the candi in Kampung Baru Site is one of the many Buddhist candis that have been found in Bujang Valley. This study used X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis techniques to identify the composition of the major and trace elements and minerals found in the bricks. The results of the analysis on the ancient brick of Candi Kampung Baru revealed that the mineral content contained in the brick samples consists of quartz, muscovite, microcline and sanidine. Minerals found suggest that open burning technique was used during the brick making process with the local raw clay sources were used to produce the bricks. The results therefore implied that the participation of the local communities in Old Kedah Kingdom contributed to the prosperity of this region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)314-323
Number of pages10
JournalPlanning Malaysia
Volume16
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

Fingerprint

X-ray fluorescence
X-ray diffraction
prosperity
raw materials
indication
participation
mineral
community
brick
analysis
sanidine
microcline
muscovite
ceramics
trace element
quartz
valley
clay

Keywords

  • Bujang Valley
  • Candi Kampung Baru
  • Old Kedah Kingdom
  • X-ray diffraction (XRD)
  • X-ray fluorescence (XRF)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Urban Studies

Cite this

Ramli, Z., Nasir, M. N. M. M., Samian, A. L., Harun, N. Z., Hadi, M. S. B. A., Bakar, N. A., & Supian, N. S. M. (2018). XRD and XRF Analysis of the ancient bricks from Candi Kampung Baru, Kedah. Planning Malaysia, 16(1), 314-323.

XRD and XRF Analysis of the ancient bricks from Candi Kampung Baru, Kedah. / Ramli, Zuliskandar; Nasir, Muhammad Nu man Mohd; Samian, Abdul Latif; Harun, Nor Zalina; Hadi, Mohd Shamsul Bahari Abdul; Bakar, Nuratikah Abu; Supian, Nur Sarahah Mohd.

In: Planning Malaysia, Vol. 16, No. 1, 01.01.2018, p. 314-323.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ramli, Z, Nasir, MNMM, Samian, AL, Harun, NZ, Hadi, MSBA, Bakar, NA & Supian, NSM 2018, 'XRD and XRF Analysis of the ancient bricks from Candi Kampung Baru, Kedah', Planning Malaysia, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 314-323.
Ramli, Zuliskandar ; Nasir, Muhammad Nu man Mohd ; Samian, Abdul Latif ; Harun, Nor Zalina ; Hadi, Mohd Shamsul Bahari Abdul ; Bakar, Nuratikah Abu ; Supian, Nur Sarahah Mohd. / XRD and XRF Analysis of the ancient bricks from Candi Kampung Baru, Kedah. In: Planning Malaysia. 2018 ; Vol. 16, No. 1. pp. 314-323.
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