X-ray fluorescent analysis on Indo-Pacific glass beads from Sungai Mas archaeological sites, Kedah, Malaysia

Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman, Abdul Latif Samian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sungai Mas was an ancient port-kingdom located on West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia in a district of Kota Kuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia. The port-kingdom evolved as an entrepot since fifth century AD and continuously visited by international trader from India, China, Middle East and Europe until eighteenth century AD. Sungai Mas was also one of the Indo-Pacific beads making centers in Southeast Asia since sixth to thirteenth century AD and also produced pottery and brick. X-ray fluorescent analysis (XRF) on Sungai Mas Indo-Pacific beads is carried out to determine whether the glass beads originated from Arikamedu, India or locally made by community in Sungai Mas. Totally, twenty-two samples of beads and beads materials assayed by XRF were chosen. Contents of nine major elements and nine trace elements, which might be present of flux, stabilizer, colorants or opacifier were examined. The elements Si, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Mn, Mg, Cu, Pb, Zr, Sr, Ba, La, U, Ni and Cr were detectable in all samples. The concentration of elements found are discussed in terms of flux, silica or lead base glass, color and/or opacity of the glass beads and glass samples. The result showed that Sungai Mas produced their own Indo-Pacific beads from sixth to thirteenth century AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)741-747
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Volume287
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011

Fingerprint

Malaysia
Glass
X-Rays
X rays
Chemical elements
India
Fluxes
Stabilizers (agents)
Southeastern Asia
Middle East
Opacity
Trace Elements
Brick
Trace elements
Silicon Dioxide
Coastal zones
China
Color
Lead
Silica

Keywords

  • Major elements
  • Peninsula Malaysia
  • Sungai Mas
  • Trace elements
  • X-ray fluorescent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Analytical Chemistry

Cite this

X-ray fluorescent analysis on Indo-Pacific glass beads from Sungai Mas archaeological sites, Kedah, Malaysia. / Ramli, Zuliskandar; Nik Abdul Rahman, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi; Samian, Abdul Latif.

In: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 287, No. 3, 03.2011, p. 741-747.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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