X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis of proto-historic votive tablets from Chawas cave, Hulu Kelantan, Malaysia

Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhami Nik Abdul Rahman, Abdul Latif Samian, Muhammad Rizal Razman, Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria, Adnan Jusoh, Yunus Sauman, Hossein Sarhaddi Dadian

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This research was conducted to determine the origin of votive tablets found in prehistoric and proto-historic site of Chawas Cave in Hulu Kelantan. The votive tablets found in Chawas Cave showed several Buddhist images which are associated with the Srivijaya Kingdom which existed from 7th century AD until 12th century AD. To determine if the votive tablets were produced by communities that lived in Hulu Kelantan, hence the study of the chemical composition of the votive tablets should be carried out. Two techniques were employed in this research, namely the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. The techniques will determine the mineral content as well as the major and trace element content of the votive tablets. Analysis showed that all the votive tablet samples have mineral known as clinochlore. Clinochlore is one of the chlorites, namely a group of phyllosilicate minerals. Chlorite is commonly found in igneous rocks as an alteration product of mafic minerals such as pyroxene, amphibole and biotite. The votive tablets were found in a cave which consisted of limestone cave formation and it showed that the votive tablets were not produced by the local community of Hulu Kelantan. Major elements also showed that the chemical composition of the votive tablets is not similar to the composition of clay samples taken from several rivers in Hulu Kelantan.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1195-1201
Number of pages7
JournalResearch Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology
Volume7
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Caves
Minerals
Fluorescence
X ray diffraction
X rays
Chemical analysis
Igneous rocks
Trace elements
Limestone
Clay
Rivers

Keywords

  • Chawas cave
  • Hulu kelantan
  • Srivijaya
  • Votive tablet
  • X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
  • X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Computer Science(all)

Cite this

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title = "X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis of proto-historic votive tablets from Chawas cave, Hulu Kelantan, Malaysia",
abstract = "This research was conducted to determine the origin of votive tablets found in prehistoric and proto-historic site of Chawas Cave in Hulu Kelantan. The votive tablets found in Chawas Cave showed several Buddhist images which are associated with the Srivijaya Kingdom which existed from 7th century AD until 12th century AD. To determine if the votive tablets were produced by communities that lived in Hulu Kelantan, hence the study of the chemical composition of the votive tablets should be carried out. Two techniques were employed in this research, namely the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. The techniques will determine the mineral content as well as the major and trace element content of the votive tablets. Analysis showed that all the votive tablet samples have mineral known as clinochlore. Clinochlore is one of the chlorites, namely a group of phyllosilicate minerals. Chlorite is commonly found in igneous rocks as an alteration product of mafic minerals such as pyroxene, amphibole and biotite. The votive tablets were found in a cave which consisted of limestone cave formation and it showed that the votive tablets were not produced by the local community of Hulu Kelantan. Major elements also showed that the chemical composition of the votive tablets is not similar to the composition of clay samples taken from several rivers in Hulu Kelantan.",
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author = "Zuliskandar Ramli and {Abdul Rahman}, {Nik Hassan Shuhami Nik} and Samian, {Abdul Latif} and Razman, {Muhammad Rizal} and {Syed Zakaria}, {Sharifah Zarina} and Adnan Jusoh and Yunus Sauman and Dadian, {Hossein Sarhaddi}",
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T1 - X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis of proto-historic votive tablets from Chawas cave, Hulu Kelantan, Malaysia

AU - Ramli, Zuliskandar

AU - Abdul Rahman, Nik Hassan Shuhami Nik

AU - Samian, Abdul Latif

AU - Razman, Muhammad Rizal

AU - Syed Zakaria, Sharifah Zarina

AU - Jusoh, Adnan

AU - Sauman, Yunus

AU - Dadian, Hossein Sarhaddi

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - This research was conducted to determine the origin of votive tablets found in prehistoric and proto-historic site of Chawas Cave in Hulu Kelantan. The votive tablets found in Chawas Cave showed several Buddhist images which are associated with the Srivijaya Kingdom which existed from 7th century AD until 12th century AD. To determine if the votive tablets were produced by communities that lived in Hulu Kelantan, hence the study of the chemical composition of the votive tablets should be carried out. Two techniques were employed in this research, namely the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. The techniques will determine the mineral content as well as the major and trace element content of the votive tablets. Analysis showed that all the votive tablet samples have mineral known as clinochlore. Clinochlore is one of the chlorites, namely a group of phyllosilicate minerals. Chlorite is commonly found in igneous rocks as an alteration product of mafic minerals such as pyroxene, amphibole and biotite. The votive tablets were found in a cave which consisted of limestone cave formation and it showed that the votive tablets were not produced by the local community of Hulu Kelantan. Major elements also showed that the chemical composition of the votive tablets is not similar to the composition of clay samples taken from several rivers in Hulu Kelantan.

AB - This research was conducted to determine the origin of votive tablets found in prehistoric and proto-historic site of Chawas Cave in Hulu Kelantan. The votive tablets found in Chawas Cave showed several Buddhist images which are associated with the Srivijaya Kingdom which existed from 7th century AD until 12th century AD. To determine if the votive tablets were produced by communities that lived in Hulu Kelantan, hence the study of the chemical composition of the votive tablets should be carried out. Two techniques were employed in this research, namely the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. The techniques will determine the mineral content as well as the major and trace element content of the votive tablets. Analysis showed that all the votive tablet samples have mineral known as clinochlore. Clinochlore is one of the chlorites, namely a group of phyllosilicate minerals. Chlorite is commonly found in igneous rocks as an alteration product of mafic minerals such as pyroxene, amphibole and biotite. The votive tablets were found in a cave which consisted of limestone cave formation and it showed that the votive tablets were not produced by the local community of Hulu Kelantan. Major elements also showed that the chemical composition of the votive tablets is not similar to the composition of clay samples taken from several rivers in Hulu Kelantan.

KW - Chawas cave

KW - Hulu kelantan

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KW - X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

KW - X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)

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