X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of ancient bricks from Sungai Batu Temple (site SB1) Bujang Valley Kedah

Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhami Nik Abdul Rahman, Abdul Latif Samian, Muhammad Rizal Razman, Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria, Hossein Sarhaddi Dadian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine whether the ancient bricks from Sungai Batu Temple (SB1) are made from local materials or not. Chronometric and relative dating have given different results, the absolute dating gave the date between 2nd to 3rd century AD while the relative dating gave the date between 6th to 7th century AD. The structure which was fully built using bricks is a relatively large stupa structure and not a structure associated with animism practised. In order to determine whether the bricks that were used to build the structure of Site SB1 used local raw materials or otherwise, thus material composition analysis needs to be carried out which involves X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Analysis shows that the mineral content present in the ancient brick samples consists of quartz, muscovite, microcline, mullite and albite. The mullite mineral shows that some of the bricks were baked at sufficient temperature of more than 550°C. This shows that the open burning technique was used in the production of the temple’s bricks because some of the bricks have an indication of low firing burning. The dry weight percentage graph of silica and aluminium, and magnesium and titanium, as well as the lead and copper concentration graph indicate that the raw materials used to produce the ancient bricks are local raw materials and these raw materials were obtained from the surrounding area of Bujang District.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)360-364
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
Volume12
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

bricks
X-ray diffraction
X-Ray Diffraction
Minerals
X-radiation
fluorescence
valleys
Fluorescence
X-Rays
valley
Quartz
Titanium
Aluminum
Silicon Dioxide
Magnesium
raw materials
Copper
porcellanite
Weights and Measures
Temperature

Keywords

  • Bujang Valley
  • Sungai Batu Temple
  • X–ray diffraction (XRD)
  • X–ray fluorescence (XRF)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

@article{85b80bdebe3c4e69afaad82f044a7c9f,
title = "X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of ancient bricks from Sungai Batu Temple (site SB1) Bujang Valley Kedah",
abstract = "The aim of this study was to determine whether the ancient bricks from Sungai Batu Temple (SB1) are made from local materials or not. Chronometric and relative dating have given different results, the absolute dating gave the date between 2nd to 3rd century AD while the relative dating gave the date between 6th to 7th century AD. The structure which was fully built using bricks is a relatively large stupa structure and not a structure associated with animism practised. In order to determine whether the bricks that were used to build the structure of Site SB1 used local raw materials or otherwise, thus material composition analysis needs to be carried out which involves X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Analysis shows that the mineral content present in the ancient brick samples consists of quartz, muscovite, microcline, mullite and albite. The mullite mineral shows that some of the bricks were baked at sufficient temperature of more than 550°C. This shows that the open burning technique was used in the production of the temple’s bricks because some of the bricks have an indication of low firing burning. The dry weight percentage graph of silica and aluminium, and magnesium and titanium, as well as the lead and copper concentration graph indicate that the raw materials used to produce the ancient bricks are local raw materials and these raw materials were obtained from the surrounding area of Bujang District.",
keywords = "Bujang Valley, Sungai Batu Temple, X–ray diffraction (XRD), X–ray fluorescence (XRF)",
author = "Zuliskandar Ramli and Rahman, {Nik Hassan Shuhami Nik Abdul} and Samian, {Abdul Latif} and Razman, {Muhammad Rizal} and {Syed Zakaria}, {Sharifah Zarina} and Dadian, {Hossein Sarhaddi}",
year = "2014",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "360--364",
journal = "Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment",
issn = "1459-0255",
publisher = "World Food Ltd. and WFL Publishers",
number = "3-4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of ancient bricks from Sungai Batu Temple (site SB1) Bujang Valley Kedah

AU - Ramli, Zuliskandar

AU - Rahman, Nik Hassan Shuhami Nik Abdul

AU - Samian, Abdul Latif

AU - Razman, Muhammad Rizal

AU - Syed Zakaria, Sharifah Zarina

AU - Dadian, Hossein Sarhaddi

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - The aim of this study was to determine whether the ancient bricks from Sungai Batu Temple (SB1) are made from local materials or not. Chronometric and relative dating have given different results, the absolute dating gave the date between 2nd to 3rd century AD while the relative dating gave the date between 6th to 7th century AD. The structure which was fully built using bricks is a relatively large stupa structure and not a structure associated with animism practised. In order to determine whether the bricks that were used to build the structure of Site SB1 used local raw materials or otherwise, thus material composition analysis needs to be carried out which involves X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Analysis shows that the mineral content present in the ancient brick samples consists of quartz, muscovite, microcline, mullite and albite. The mullite mineral shows that some of the bricks were baked at sufficient temperature of more than 550°C. This shows that the open burning technique was used in the production of the temple’s bricks because some of the bricks have an indication of low firing burning. The dry weight percentage graph of silica and aluminium, and magnesium and titanium, as well as the lead and copper concentration graph indicate that the raw materials used to produce the ancient bricks are local raw materials and these raw materials were obtained from the surrounding area of Bujang District.

AB - The aim of this study was to determine whether the ancient bricks from Sungai Batu Temple (SB1) are made from local materials or not. Chronometric and relative dating have given different results, the absolute dating gave the date between 2nd to 3rd century AD while the relative dating gave the date between 6th to 7th century AD. The structure which was fully built using bricks is a relatively large stupa structure and not a structure associated with animism practised. In order to determine whether the bricks that were used to build the structure of Site SB1 used local raw materials or otherwise, thus material composition analysis needs to be carried out which involves X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Analysis shows that the mineral content present in the ancient brick samples consists of quartz, muscovite, microcline, mullite and albite. The mullite mineral shows that some of the bricks were baked at sufficient temperature of more than 550°C. This shows that the open burning technique was used in the production of the temple’s bricks because some of the bricks have an indication of low firing burning. The dry weight percentage graph of silica and aluminium, and magnesium and titanium, as well as the lead and copper concentration graph indicate that the raw materials used to produce the ancient bricks are local raw materials and these raw materials were obtained from the surrounding area of Bujang District.

KW - Bujang Valley

KW - Sungai Batu Temple

KW - X–ray diffraction (XRD)

KW - X–ray fluorescence (XRF)

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84908702212&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84908702212&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84908702212

VL - 12

SP - 360

EP - 364

JO - Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

JF - Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

SN - 1459-0255

IS - 3-4

ER -