X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Flourescence of ancient bricks of Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17), Bujang Valley, Kedah

Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Nik Hassan Shuhaimi, Abdul Latif Samian, Mohd. Ambar Yarmo

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9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) is one of the temple sites that used bricks as the main construction material and based on Global Positioning System, Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) located at N5 41 43.4 E100 25 21.3. Apart from bricks, laterite stones were also used as the basis of the construction's structure which is octagonal in shape that is a stupa. Based on relative dating of this site, it is proposed that it was built between the 7 to 9th centuries AD. At this site, bricks containing rice husks were also found. These rice husks were used as strengthening material or one of the rituals when building temples.This combine evidence shows that the Old Kedah Malay community had already practised the paddy cultivation system since the 7th century AD or earlier. This study will focus on material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to construct this temple of which the main purpose is to see whether the raw materials used to produce those bricks utilised local raw materials or not. This is because the usage of local raw materials was associated with brick making technology that was already mastered by the local community.Two analysis techniques will be used namely the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The findings show that the major minerals contained in the ancient bricks of Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) are quartz, muscoviteand microline while the other minerals that exist are kaolinite. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open burning technique was used to produce these bricks because of the presence of kaolinite in one of the samples (BP17 (xv)). The kaolinite content shows that the samples were baked at a temperature less than 550°C. The content of the major and trace elements also shows that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is proposed that local raw materials were used in the production of the bricks and the nearest source that could be detected is at the Sungai Bujangbasin. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted and this proved that the knowledge transformation of the local community had already started since the 4th century AD based on archaeological context in Bujang Valley especially inscriptions finding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1094-1100
Number of pages7
JournalResearch Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology
Volume6
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Brick
X ray diffraction
X rays
Kaolinite
Raw materials
Minerals
Trace elements
Global positioning system
Quartz
Fluorescence

Keywords

  • Bricks
  • Bujang Valley
  • Candi bukit pendiat
  • Material composition
  • X-ray Diffraction
  • X-ray Fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Computer Science(all)

Cite this

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title = "X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Flourescence of ancient bricks of Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17), Bujang Valley, Kedah",
abstract = "Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) is one of the temple sites that used bricks as the main construction material and based on Global Positioning System, Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) located at N5 41 43.4 E100 25 21.3. Apart from bricks, laterite stones were also used as the basis of the construction's structure which is octagonal in shape that is a stupa. Based on relative dating of this site, it is proposed that it was built between the 7 to 9th centuries AD. At this site, bricks containing rice husks were also found. These rice husks were used as strengthening material or one of the rituals when building temples.This combine evidence shows that the Old Kedah Malay community had already practised the paddy cultivation system since the 7th century AD or earlier. This study will focus on material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to construct this temple of which the main purpose is to see whether the raw materials used to produce those bricks utilised local raw materials or not. This is because the usage of local raw materials was associated with brick making technology that was already mastered by the local community.Two analysis techniques will be used namely the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The findings show that the major minerals contained in the ancient bricks of Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) are quartz, muscoviteand microline while the other minerals that exist are kaolinite. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open burning technique was used to produce these bricks because of the presence of kaolinite in one of the samples (BP17 (xv)). The kaolinite content shows that the samples were baked at a temperature less than 550°C. The content of the major and trace elements also shows that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is proposed that local raw materials were used in the production of the bricks and the nearest source that could be detected is at the Sungai Bujangbasin. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted and this proved that the knowledge transformation of the local community had already started since the 4th century AD based on archaeological context in Bujang Valley especially inscriptions finding.",
keywords = "Bricks, Bujang Valley, Candi bukit pendiat, Material composition, X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence",
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T1 - X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Flourescence of ancient bricks of Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17), Bujang Valley, Kedah

AU - Ramli, Zuliskandar

AU - Nik Hassan Shuhaimi, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik

AU - Samian, Abdul Latif

AU - Yarmo, Mohd. Ambar

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) is one of the temple sites that used bricks as the main construction material and based on Global Positioning System, Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) located at N5 41 43.4 E100 25 21.3. Apart from bricks, laterite stones were also used as the basis of the construction's structure which is octagonal in shape that is a stupa. Based on relative dating of this site, it is proposed that it was built between the 7 to 9th centuries AD. At this site, bricks containing rice husks were also found. These rice husks were used as strengthening material or one of the rituals when building temples.This combine evidence shows that the Old Kedah Malay community had already practised the paddy cultivation system since the 7th century AD or earlier. This study will focus on material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to construct this temple of which the main purpose is to see whether the raw materials used to produce those bricks utilised local raw materials or not. This is because the usage of local raw materials was associated with brick making technology that was already mastered by the local community.Two analysis techniques will be used namely the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The findings show that the major minerals contained in the ancient bricks of Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) are quartz, muscoviteand microline while the other minerals that exist are kaolinite. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open burning technique was used to produce these bricks because of the presence of kaolinite in one of the samples (BP17 (xv)). The kaolinite content shows that the samples were baked at a temperature less than 550°C. The content of the major and trace elements also shows that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is proposed that local raw materials were used in the production of the bricks and the nearest source that could be detected is at the Sungai Bujangbasin. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted and this proved that the knowledge transformation of the local community had already started since the 4th century AD based on archaeological context in Bujang Valley especially inscriptions finding.

AB - Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) is one of the temple sites that used bricks as the main construction material and based on Global Positioning System, Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) located at N5 41 43.4 E100 25 21.3. Apart from bricks, laterite stones were also used as the basis of the construction's structure which is octagonal in shape that is a stupa. Based on relative dating of this site, it is proposed that it was built between the 7 to 9th centuries AD. At this site, bricks containing rice husks were also found. These rice husks were used as strengthening material or one of the rituals when building temples.This combine evidence shows that the Old Kedah Malay community had already practised the paddy cultivation system since the 7th century AD or earlier. This study will focus on material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to construct this temple of which the main purpose is to see whether the raw materials used to produce those bricks utilised local raw materials or not. This is because the usage of local raw materials was associated with brick making technology that was already mastered by the local community.Two analysis techniques will be used namely the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The findings show that the major minerals contained in the ancient bricks of Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17) are quartz, muscoviteand microline while the other minerals that exist are kaolinite. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open burning technique was used to produce these bricks because of the presence of kaolinite in one of the samples (BP17 (xv)). The kaolinite content shows that the samples were baked at a temperature less than 550°C. The content of the major and trace elements also shows that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is proposed that local raw materials were used in the production of the bricks and the nearest source that could be detected is at the Sungai Bujangbasin. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted and this proved that the knowledge transformation of the local community had already started since the 4th century AD based on archaeological context in Bujang Valley especially inscriptions finding.

KW - Bricks

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KW - Material composition

KW - X-ray Diffraction

KW - X-ray Fluorescence

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