X-Ray diffraction and X-Ray flourescence of (9th-10th century AD) ancient bricks of Pengkalan Bujang Temple (site 21/22) Bujang Valley, Kedah

Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Nik Hassan Shuhaimi, Adnan Jusoh, Yunus Sauman, Muhammad Rizal Razman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Candi Pengkalan Buj ang site 21/22) is one of the temple sites of Buddha e lenient that us ed bricks as its main construction material in addition to the use of pillar bases made from granite stones and pillars believed to have been made of wood and palm roof. Relative dating that was made on this site suggests it was built between the 9-1 Oth century AD. The two main structures, namely a structure that had vimana and mandapa areas, as well as stupa structure showed there was evolution in temple construction using bricks after the 1 Oth century AD, in particular in the usage of bricks and its arrangement. This study will focus on the material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to create this temple of which its mam purpose is to see whether the raw material used to produce the bricks utilised local raw material. The two analysis techniques will be used, namely; the X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the major and trace element content, as well as mineral content in the ancient bricks. Results of the study show that the major minerals in the ancient bricks of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (site 21/22) are the presence of major minerals, such as quartz, muscovite and microclme while other minerals that exist in small quantities are minerals, such as gibbsite, mulhte and kaolimte. Kaolimte mineral content in the PB21 /22 (xx-xxii) samples shows that the bricks were fired at a temperature below 550°C. PB21 /22 (iii, iv and v iii) samples only contained quartz mineral content and this shows that the samples were fired at high temperatures between 850-1000°C. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open firing technique was used in producing the bricks. The major and trace element content also show that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is suggested that local raw material was used in the production of the bricks. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted, proving the knowledge transformation of the local community in Bujang Valley had already begun, since the 4th century.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)500-504
Number of pages5
JournalSocial Sciences (Pakistan)
Volume8
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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Keywords

  • Bricks
  • Bujang valley
  • Candi Pengkalan Buj ang (site 21/22)
  • X-ray diffraction
  • X-ray fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)

Cite this

X-Ray diffraction and X-Ray flourescence of (9th-10th century AD) ancient bricks of Pengkalan Bujang Temple (site 21/22) Bujang Valley, Kedah. / Ramli, Zuliskandar; Nik Hassan Shuhaimi, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik; Jusoh, Adnan; Sauman, Yunus; Razman, Muhammad Rizal.

In: Social Sciences (Pakistan), Vol. 8, No. 6, 2013, p. 500-504.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Candi Pengkalan Buj ang site 21/22) is one of the temple sites of Buddha e lenient that us ed bricks as its main construction material in addition to the use of pillar bases made from granite stones and pillars believed to have been made of wood and palm roof. Relative dating that was made on this site suggests it was built between the 9-1 Oth century AD. The two main structures, namely a structure that had vimana and mandapa areas, as well as stupa structure showed there was evolution in temple construction using bricks after the 1 Oth century AD, in particular in the usage of bricks and its arrangement. This study will focus on the material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to create this temple of which its mam purpose is to see whether the raw material used to produce the bricks utilised local raw material. The two analysis techniques will be used, namely; the X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the major and trace element content, as well as mineral content in the ancient bricks. Results of the study show that the major minerals in the ancient bricks of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (site 21/22) are the presence of major minerals, such as quartz, muscovite and microclme while other minerals that exist in small quantities are minerals, such as gibbsite, mulhte and kaolimte. Kaolimte mineral content in the PB21 /22 (xx-xxii) samples shows that the bricks were fired at a temperature below 550°C. PB21 /22 (iii, iv and v iii) samples only contained quartz mineral content and this shows that the samples were fired at high temperatures between 850-1000°C. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open firing technique was used in producing the bricks. The major and trace element content also show that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is suggested that local raw material was used in the production of the bricks. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted, proving the knowledge transformation of the local community in Bujang Valley had already begun, since the 4th century.",
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AU - Nik Hassan Shuhaimi, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik

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AU - Sauman, Yunus

AU - Razman, Muhammad Rizal

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N2 - Candi Pengkalan Buj ang site 21/22) is one of the temple sites of Buddha e lenient that us ed bricks as its main construction material in addition to the use of pillar bases made from granite stones and pillars believed to have been made of wood and palm roof. Relative dating that was made on this site suggests it was built between the 9-1 Oth century AD. The two main structures, namely a structure that had vimana and mandapa areas, as well as stupa structure showed there was evolution in temple construction using bricks after the 1 Oth century AD, in particular in the usage of bricks and its arrangement. This study will focus on the material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to create this temple of which its mam purpose is to see whether the raw material used to produce the bricks utilised local raw material. The two analysis techniques will be used, namely; the X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the major and trace element content, as well as mineral content in the ancient bricks. Results of the study show that the major minerals in the ancient bricks of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (site 21/22) are the presence of major minerals, such as quartz, muscovite and microclme while other minerals that exist in small quantities are minerals, such as gibbsite, mulhte and kaolimte. Kaolimte mineral content in the PB21 /22 (xx-xxii) samples shows that the bricks were fired at a temperature below 550°C. PB21 /22 (iii, iv and v iii) samples only contained quartz mineral content and this shows that the samples were fired at high temperatures between 850-1000°C. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open firing technique was used in producing the bricks. The major and trace element content also show that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is suggested that local raw material was used in the production of the bricks. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted, proving the knowledge transformation of the local community in Bujang Valley had already begun, since the 4th century.

AB - Candi Pengkalan Buj ang site 21/22) is one of the temple sites of Buddha e lenient that us ed bricks as its main construction material in addition to the use of pillar bases made from granite stones and pillars believed to have been made of wood and palm roof. Relative dating that was made on this site suggests it was built between the 9-1 Oth century AD. The two main structures, namely a structure that had vimana and mandapa areas, as well as stupa structure showed there was evolution in temple construction using bricks after the 1 Oth century AD, in particular in the usage of bricks and its arrangement. This study will focus on the material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to create this temple of which its mam purpose is to see whether the raw material used to produce the bricks utilised local raw material. The two analysis techniques will be used, namely; the X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the major and trace element content, as well as mineral content in the ancient bricks. Results of the study show that the major minerals in the ancient bricks of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (site 21/22) are the presence of major minerals, such as quartz, muscovite and microclme while other minerals that exist in small quantities are minerals, such as gibbsite, mulhte and kaolimte. Kaolimte mineral content in the PB21 /22 (xx-xxii) samples shows that the bricks were fired at a temperature below 550°C. PB21 /22 (iii, iv and v iii) samples only contained quartz mineral content and this shows that the samples were fired at high temperatures between 850-1000°C. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open firing technique was used in producing the bricks. The major and trace element content also show that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is suggested that local raw material was used in the production of the bricks. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted, proving the knowledge transformation of the local community in Bujang Valley had already begun, since the 4th century.

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