X-radiographic observations of food passage and nutrient absorption along the alimentary tract of archerfish, Toxotes jaculatrix

Simon Kumar Das, Mazlan Abd. Ghaffar, Yosni Bakar, Marcelo F G Brito, Sharifah Mastura Syed Abdullah, Shelby E. Temple

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

X-radiography can be used to estimate gastric emptying time, which is valuable in calculating food consumption and growth rates in fishes. The movement of food through the alimentary tract (gastric motility) of banded archerfish, Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas, 1767), was observed in the laboratory under natural conditions of temperature (27 °C) and salinity (28) using X-radiography, with barium sulphate (BaSO4) as an inert food marker. Nutrient absorption along the alimentary tract (expressed as relative percentage absorption gradient) was calculated using the apparent digestibility coefficient ( ADC ) based on ash contents of adjacent samples. We found that initial voiding of fecal matter began 6-12 hrs after feeding commenced, and that alimentary tracts were completely emptied within 96 hrs. Considerable proportions of all macronutrients were absorbed in the short region (anterior intestine/pyloric caeca), but active absorption continued along the longer middle and posterior intestinal segments. The macronutrient in wild-fed T. jaculatrix differed (51% protein, 63% lipid, 20% carbohydrate, and 40% energy) from that of laboratory-fed fish (75% protein, 96% lipid, 50% carbohydrate, and 87% energy), due to the fact that the proximate contents of macronutriet in the wild-fed fish were unknown, while the diet of the laboratory-fed fish was initially known. Gut passage times in T. jaculatrix was longer than those reported in various temperate carnivorous fishes, which is surprising given the higher temperatures in the tropics, however, all previous studies were performed on cultured fish fed commercial pellets and therefore direct comparisons are not possible. Slow gut passage may depend on the types of food ingested (e.g., high chitinous mealworm) that correlated to lower food consumption. Our results generally indicated that T. jaculatrix is opportunistic feeders regardless of the macronutrient content of the prey.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)903-919
Number of pages17
JournalBulletin of Marine Science
Volume90
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2014

Fingerprint

fish feeds
barium sulfate
food
nutrient
nutrients
fish
radiography
food consumption
digestive system
carbohydrates
gastrointestinal motility
gastric emptying
carbohydrate
energy
lipids
lipid
ash content
cecum
pellets
tropics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Oceanography

Cite this

X-radiographic observations of food passage and nutrient absorption along the alimentary tract of archerfish, Toxotes jaculatrix. / Das, Simon Kumar; Abd. Ghaffar, Mazlan; Bakar, Yosni; Brito, Marcelo F G; Syed Abdullah, Sharifah Mastura; Temple, Shelby E.

In: Bulletin of Marine Science, Vol. 90, No. 4, 01.10.2014, p. 903-919.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{5e14d5b8992d4d388c8ba4d95902b864,
title = "X-radiographic observations of food passage and nutrient absorption along the alimentary tract of archerfish, Toxotes jaculatrix",
abstract = "X-radiography can be used to estimate gastric emptying time, which is valuable in calculating food consumption and growth rates in fishes. The movement of food through the alimentary tract (gastric motility) of banded archerfish, Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas, 1767), was observed in the laboratory under natural conditions of temperature (27 °C) and salinity (28) using X-radiography, with barium sulphate (BaSO4) as an inert food marker. Nutrient absorption along the alimentary tract (expressed as relative percentage absorption gradient) was calculated using the apparent digestibility coefficient ( ADC ) based on ash contents of adjacent samples. We found that initial voiding of fecal matter began 6-12 hrs after feeding commenced, and that alimentary tracts were completely emptied within 96 hrs. Considerable proportions of all macronutrients were absorbed in the short region (anterior intestine/pyloric caeca), but active absorption continued along the longer middle and posterior intestinal segments. The macronutrient in wild-fed T. jaculatrix differed (51{\%} protein, 63{\%} lipid, 20{\%} carbohydrate, and 40{\%} energy) from that of laboratory-fed fish (75{\%} protein, 96{\%} lipid, 50{\%} carbohydrate, and 87{\%} energy), due to the fact that the proximate contents of macronutriet in the wild-fed fish were unknown, while the diet of the laboratory-fed fish was initially known. Gut passage times in T. jaculatrix was longer than those reported in various temperate carnivorous fishes, which is surprising given the higher temperatures in the tropics, however, all previous studies were performed on cultured fish fed commercial pellets and therefore direct comparisons are not possible. Slow gut passage may depend on the types of food ingested (e.g., high chitinous mealworm) that correlated to lower food consumption. Our results generally indicated that T. jaculatrix is opportunistic feeders regardless of the macronutrient content of the prey.",
author = "Das, {Simon Kumar} and {Abd. Ghaffar}, Mazlan and Yosni Bakar and Brito, {Marcelo F G} and {Syed Abdullah}, {Sharifah Mastura} and Temple, {Shelby E.}",
year = "2014",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.5343/bms.2013.1073",
language = "English",
volume = "90",
pages = "903--919",
journal = "Bulletin of Marine Science",
issn = "0007-4977",
publisher = "Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - X-radiographic observations of food passage and nutrient absorption along the alimentary tract of archerfish, Toxotes jaculatrix

AU - Das, Simon Kumar

AU - Abd. Ghaffar, Mazlan

AU - Bakar, Yosni

AU - Brito, Marcelo F G

AU - Syed Abdullah, Sharifah Mastura

AU - Temple, Shelby E.

PY - 2014/10/1

Y1 - 2014/10/1

N2 - X-radiography can be used to estimate gastric emptying time, which is valuable in calculating food consumption and growth rates in fishes. The movement of food through the alimentary tract (gastric motility) of banded archerfish, Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas, 1767), was observed in the laboratory under natural conditions of temperature (27 °C) and salinity (28) using X-radiography, with barium sulphate (BaSO4) as an inert food marker. Nutrient absorption along the alimentary tract (expressed as relative percentage absorption gradient) was calculated using the apparent digestibility coefficient ( ADC ) based on ash contents of adjacent samples. We found that initial voiding of fecal matter began 6-12 hrs after feeding commenced, and that alimentary tracts were completely emptied within 96 hrs. Considerable proportions of all macronutrients were absorbed in the short region (anterior intestine/pyloric caeca), but active absorption continued along the longer middle and posterior intestinal segments. The macronutrient in wild-fed T. jaculatrix differed (51% protein, 63% lipid, 20% carbohydrate, and 40% energy) from that of laboratory-fed fish (75% protein, 96% lipid, 50% carbohydrate, and 87% energy), due to the fact that the proximate contents of macronutriet in the wild-fed fish were unknown, while the diet of the laboratory-fed fish was initially known. Gut passage times in T. jaculatrix was longer than those reported in various temperate carnivorous fishes, which is surprising given the higher temperatures in the tropics, however, all previous studies were performed on cultured fish fed commercial pellets and therefore direct comparisons are not possible. Slow gut passage may depend on the types of food ingested (e.g., high chitinous mealworm) that correlated to lower food consumption. Our results generally indicated that T. jaculatrix is opportunistic feeders regardless of the macronutrient content of the prey.

AB - X-radiography can be used to estimate gastric emptying time, which is valuable in calculating food consumption and growth rates in fishes. The movement of food through the alimentary tract (gastric motility) of banded archerfish, Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas, 1767), was observed in the laboratory under natural conditions of temperature (27 °C) and salinity (28) using X-radiography, with barium sulphate (BaSO4) as an inert food marker. Nutrient absorption along the alimentary tract (expressed as relative percentage absorption gradient) was calculated using the apparent digestibility coefficient ( ADC ) based on ash contents of adjacent samples. We found that initial voiding of fecal matter began 6-12 hrs after feeding commenced, and that alimentary tracts were completely emptied within 96 hrs. Considerable proportions of all macronutrients were absorbed in the short region (anterior intestine/pyloric caeca), but active absorption continued along the longer middle and posterior intestinal segments. The macronutrient in wild-fed T. jaculatrix differed (51% protein, 63% lipid, 20% carbohydrate, and 40% energy) from that of laboratory-fed fish (75% protein, 96% lipid, 50% carbohydrate, and 87% energy), due to the fact that the proximate contents of macronutriet in the wild-fed fish were unknown, while the diet of the laboratory-fed fish was initially known. Gut passage times in T. jaculatrix was longer than those reported in various temperate carnivorous fishes, which is surprising given the higher temperatures in the tropics, however, all previous studies were performed on cultured fish fed commercial pellets and therefore direct comparisons are not possible. Slow gut passage may depend on the types of food ingested (e.g., high chitinous mealworm) that correlated to lower food consumption. Our results generally indicated that T. jaculatrix is opportunistic feeders regardless of the macronutrient content of the prey.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84910105052&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84910105052&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.5343/bms.2013.1073

DO - 10.5343/bms.2013.1073

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84910105052

VL - 90

SP - 903

EP - 919

JO - Bulletin of Marine Science

JF - Bulletin of Marine Science

SN - 0007-4977

IS - 4

ER -