Whole grain intakes in the diets of Malaysian children and adolescents-findings from the MyBreakfast study

Norimah A. Karim, H. C. Koo, J. M. Hamid Jan, M. T. Mohd Nasir, S. Y. Tan, Mahendran Appukutty, A. R. Nurliyana, Frank Thielecke, Sinead Hopkins, M. K. Ong, C. Ning, E. S. Tee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents. Methods This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained. Results Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8g/d) in children and 1.7g/d (SD 4.7g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer's only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48g/day. Conclusion Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0138247
JournalPLoS One
Volume10
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Oct 2015

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grain consumption
whole grain foods
Nutrition
Diet
diet
Food
Malaysia
Whole Grains
Health
breakfast cereals
health promotion
food labeling
diet recall
Breakfast
school children
food records
Feeding Behavior
Insurance Benefits
Health Promotion
eating habits

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

A. Karim, N., Koo, H. C., Hamid Jan, J. M., Mohd Nasir, M. T., Tan, S. Y., Appukutty, M., ... Tee, E. S. (2015). Whole grain intakes in the diets of Malaysian children and adolescents-findings from the MyBreakfast study. PLoS One, 10(10), [e0138247]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138247

Whole grain intakes in the diets of Malaysian children and adolescents-findings from the MyBreakfast study. / A. Karim, Norimah; Koo, H. C.; Hamid Jan, J. M.; Mohd Nasir, M. T.; Tan, S. Y.; Appukutty, Mahendran; Nurliyana, A. R.; Thielecke, Frank; Hopkins, Sinead; Ong, M. K.; Ning, C.; Tee, E. S.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 10, No. 10, e0138247, 16.10.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

A. Karim, N, Koo, HC, Hamid Jan, JM, Mohd Nasir, MT, Tan, SY, Appukutty, M, Nurliyana, AR, Thielecke, F, Hopkins, S, Ong, MK, Ning, C & Tee, ES 2015, 'Whole grain intakes in the diets of Malaysian children and adolescents-findings from the MyBreakfast study', PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 10, e0138247. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138247
A. Karim, Norimah ; Koo, H. C. ; Hamid Jan, J. M. ; Mohd Nasir, M. T. ; Tan, S. Y. ; Appukutty, Mahendran ; Nurliyana, A. R. ; Thielecke, Frank ; Hopkins, Sinead ; Ong, M. K. ; Ning, C. ; Tee, E. S. / Whole grain intakes in the diets of Malaysian children and adolescents-findings from the MyBreakfast study. In: PLoS One. 2015 ; Vol. 10, No. 10.
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abstract = "Background Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents. Methods This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained. Results Overall, only 25{\%} of children and 19{\%} of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8g/d) in children and 1.7g/d (SD 4.7g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer's only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3{\%} of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48g/day. Conclusion Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.",
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AU - A. Karim, Norimah

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AU - Mohd Nasir, M. T.

AU - Tan, S. Y.

AU - Appukutty, Mahendran

AU - Nurliyana, A. R.

AU - Thielecke, Frank

AU - Hopkins, Sinead

AU - Ong, M. K.

AU - Ning, C.

AU - Tee, E. S.

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N2 - Background Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents. Methods This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained. Results Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8g/d) in children and 1.7g/d (SD 4.7g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer's only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48g/day. Conclusion Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

AB - Background Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents. Methods This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained. Results Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8g/d) in children and 1.7g/d (SD 4.7g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer's only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48g/day. Conclusion Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

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