Vitamin D deficiency and its risk factors in Malaysian children with epilepsy

Choong Yi Fong, Ann Nie Kong, Bee Koon Poh, Ahmad Rithauddin Mohamed, Teik Beng Khoo, Rui Lun Ng, Mazidah Noordin, Thiyagar Nadarajaw, Lai Choo Ong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Long-term use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a significant risk factor for vitamin D deficiency in children with epilepsy. The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency among Malaysian children with epilepsy. Methods: Cross-sectional study of ambulant children with epilepsy on long-term AEDs for >1 year seen in three tertiary hospitals in Malaysia from April 2014 to April 2015. Detailed assessment of pubertal status, skin pigmentation, sunshine exposure behavior, physical activity, dietary vitamin D and calcium intake, anthropometric measurements and bone health blood tests (vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone levels) were obtained on all patients. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels ≤35 nmol/L and insufficiency as 25(OH)D levels of 36–50 nmol/L. Results: A total of 244 children (146 male) participated in the study. Ages ranged between 3.7 and 18.8 years (mean 12.3 years). 25(OH)D levels ranged between 7.5 and 140.9 nmol/L (mean 53.9 nmol/L). Vitamin D deficiency was identified in 55 patients (22.5%), and a further 48 (19.7%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified polytherapy >1 AED (odds ratio [OR] 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–4.36), age >12 years (OR 4.16, 95% CI 1.13–15.30), Indian ethnicity (OR 6.97, 95% CI 2.48–19.55), sun exposure time 30–60 min/day (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.05–5.67), sun exposure time <30 min/day (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.61–9.09), and female (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.31–5.20) as statistically significant (p < 0.05) risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Significance: Despite living in the tropics, a high proportion of Malaysian children with epilepsy are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Targeted strategies including vitamin D supplementation and lifestyle advice of healthy sunlight exposure behavior should be implemented among children with epilepsy, particularly for those at high risk of having vitamin D deficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1271-1279
Number of pages9
JournalEpilepsia
Volume57
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Vitamin D Deficiency
Epilepsy
Vitamin D
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Anticonvulsants
Sunlight
Solar System
Skin Pigmentation
Malaysia
Hematologic Tests
Parathyroid Hormone
Tertiary Care Centers
Alkaline Phosphatase
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Exercise
Calcium
Bone and Bones

Keywords

  • Anticonvulsant
  • Antiepileptic drug
  • Bone health
  • Nutrition
  • Pediatric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Fong, C. Y., Kong, A. N., Poh, B. K., Mohamed, A. R., Khoo, T. B., Ng, R. L., ... Ong, L. C. (2016). Vitamin D deficiency and its risk factors in Malaysian children with epilepsy. Epilepsia, 57(8), 1271-1279. https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.13443

Vitamin D deficiency and its risk factors in Malaysian children with epilepsy. / Fong, Choong Yi; Kong, Ann Nie; Poh, Bee Koon; Mohamed, Ahmad Rithauddin; Khoo, Teik Beng; Ng, Rui Lun; Noordin, Mazidah; Nadarajaw, Thiyagar; Ong, Lai Choo.

In: Epilepsia, Vol. 57, No. 8, 2016, p. 1271-1279.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fong, CY, Kong, AN, Poh, BK, Mohamed, AR, Khoo, TB, Ng, RL, Noordin, M, Nadarajaw, T & Ong, LC 2016, 'Vitamin D deficiency and its risk factors in Malaysian children with epilepsy', Epilepsia, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 1271-1279. https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.13443
Fong, Choong Yi ; Kong, Ann Nie ; Poh, Bee Koon ; Mohamed, Ahmad Rithauddin ; Khoo, Teik Beng ; Ng, Rui Lun ; Noordin, Mazidah ; Nadarajaw, Thiyagar ; Ong, Lai Choo. / Vitamin D deficiency and its risk factors in Malaysian children with epilepsy. In: Epilepsia. 2016 ; Vol. 57, No. 8. pp. 1271-1279.
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AU - Mohamed, Ahmad Rithauddin

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AU - Ng, Rui Lun

AU - Noordin, Mazidah

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