Virucidal properties of Orthosiphon stamineus against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)

Nur Suhana Mohamad Ripim, Norefrina Shafinaz Md Nor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Aims: Phytochemical analysis showed Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) possessed bioactive compounds with antiviral properties against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1). However, there isn't any study reported so far on OS virucidal properties towards HSV-1. Thus, this study aims to investigate virucidal mechanism of OS aqueous extract that possibly acts as a potent entry inhibitor against HSV-1 infection. Methodology and results: Virucidal attachment and penetration assays were done via plaque assay to investigate the virucidal anti-HSV-1 mechanism of OS. The aqueous extract of OS leaves (OSA) was found to reduce HSV-1 plaques in virucidal assays. Inhibitory effect by OSA was observed as early as 30 min after exposing OSA to HSV-1 in a concentration-dependent manner suggesting a direct anti-HSV-1 property of OSA. Further investigation of the stages in which OSA inhibits HSV-1 shows virions treated with OSA failed to attach onto the host cell which implicated a role of OSA in blocking HSV-1 attachment to its host. OSA was also found to reduce HSV-1 plaques in penetration assay. Further evaluation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on OSA treated virion showed defective HSV-1 virion without envelope and the remaining capsid was altered. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: These findings concluded that Orthosiphon stamineus leaves extract have virucidal activity by disintegrating HSV-1 virion structure and interfering with the attachment and penetration of the virus into the host cell. Thus, through the new mechanism against HSV-1, OS has the potential to be further developed as an anti-HSV-1 agent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)590-578
Number of pages13
JournalMalaysian Journal of Microbiology
Volume14
Issue numberSpecialissue6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

Fingerprint

Orthosiphon
Human Herpesvirus 1
Virion
Defective Viruses
Virus Attachment

Keywords

  • Anti-HSV-1
  • Ethnopharmacology
  • Plaque inhibition
  • Virus attachment
  • Virus penetration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Virucidal properties of Orthosiphon stamineus against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1). / Mohamad Ripim, Nur Suhana; Md Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz.

In: Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 14, No. Specialissue6, 01.01.2018, p. 590-578.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{8ef23f5c38084ecfa4a9d5f4a2944757,
title = "Virucidal properties of Orthosiphon stamineus against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)",
abstract = "Aims: Phytochemical analysis showed Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) possessed bioactive compounds with antiviral properties against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1). However, there isn't any study reported so far on OS virucidal properties towards HSV-1. Thus, this study aims to investigate virucidal mechanism of OS aqueous extract that possibly acts as a potent entry inhibitor against HSV-1 infection. Methodology and results: Virucidal attachment and penetration assays were done via plaque assay to investigate the virucidal anti-HSV-1 mechanism of OS. The aqueous extract of OS leaves (OSA) was found to reduce HSV-1 plaques in virucidal assays. Inhibitory effect by OSA was observed as early as 30 min after exposing OSA to HSV-1 in a concentration-dependent manner suggesting a direct anti-HSV-1 property of OSA. Further investigation of the stages in which OSA inhibits HSV-1 shows virions treated with OSA failed to attach onto the host cell which implicated a role of OSA in blocking HSV-1 attachment to its host. OSA was also found to reduce HSV-1 plaques in penetration assay. Further evaluation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on OSA treated virion showed defective HSV-1 virion without envelope and the remaining capsid was altered. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: These findings concluded that Orthosiphon stamineus leaves extract have virucidal activity by disintegrating HSV-1 virion structure and interfering with the attachment and penetration of the virus into the host cell. Thus, through the new mechanism against HSV-1, OS has the potential to be further developed as an anti-HSV-1 agent.",
keywords = "Anti-HSV-1, Ethnopharmacology, Plaque inhibition, Virus attachment, Virus penetration",
author = "{Mohamad Ripim}, {Nur Suhana} and {Md Nor}, {Norefrina Shafinaz}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.21161/mjm.1461816",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
pages = "590--578",
journal = "Malaysian Journal of Microbiology",
issn = "1823-8262",
publisher = "Malaysian Society for Microbiology",
number = "Specialissue6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Virucidal properties of Orthosiphon stamineus against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)

AU - Mohamad Ripim, Nur Suhana

AU - Md Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Aims: Phytochemical analysis showed Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) possessed bioactive compounds with antiviral properties against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1). However, there isn't any study reported so far on OS virucidal properties towards HSV-1. Thus, this study aims to investigate virucidal mechanism of OS aqueous extract that possibly acts as a potent entry inhibitor against HSV-1 infection. Methodology and results: Virucidal attachment and penetration assays were done via plaque assay to investigate the virucidal anti-HSV-1 mechanism of OS. The aqueous extract of OS leaves (OSA) was found to reduce HSV-1 plaques in virucidal assays. Inhibitory effect by OSA was observed as early as 30 min after exposing OSA to HSV-1 in a concentration-dependent manner suggesting a direct anti-HSV-1 property of OSA. Further investigation of the stages in which OSA inhibits HSV-1 shows virions treated with OSA failed to attach onto the host cell which implicated a role of OSA in blocking HSV-1 attachment to its host. OSA was also found to reduce HSV-1 plaques in penetration assay. Further evaluation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on OSA treated virion showed defective HSV-1 virion without envelope and the remaining capsid was altered. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: These findings concluded that Orthosiphon stamineus leaves extract have virucidal activity by disintegrating HSV-1 virion structure and interfering with the attachment and penetration of the virus into the host cell. Thus, through the new mechanism against HSV-1, OS has the potential to be further developed as an anti-HSV-1 agent.

AB - Aims: Phytochemical analysis showed Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) possessed bioactive compounds with antiviral properties against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1). However, there isn't any study reported so far on OS virucidal properties towards HSV-1. Thus, this study aims to investigate virucidal mechanism of OS aqueous extract that possibly acts as a potent entry inhibitor against HSV-1 infection. Methodology and results: Virucidal attachment and penetration assays were done via plaque assay to investigate the virucidal anti-HSV-1 mechanism of OS. The aqueous extract of OS leaves (OSA) was found to reduce HSV-1 plaques in virucidal assays. Inhibitory effect by OSA was observed as early as 30 min after exposing OSA to HSV-1 in a concentration-dependent manner suggesting a direct anti-HSV-1 property of OSA. Further investigation of the stages in which OSA inhibits HSV-1 shows virions treated with OSA failed to attach onto the host cell which implicated a role of OSA in blocking HSV-1 attachment to its host. OSA was also found to reduce HSV-1 plaques in penetration assay. Further evaluation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on OSA treated virion showed defective HSV-1 virion without envelope and the remaining capsid was altered. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: These findings concluded that Orthosiphon stamineus leaves extract have virucidal activity by disintegrating HSV-1 virion structure and interfering with the attachment and penetration of the virus into the host cell. Thus, through the new mechanism against HSV-1, OS has the potential to be further developed as an anti-HSV-1 agent.

KW - Anti-HSV-1

KW - Ethnopharmacology

KW - Plaque inhibition

KW - Virus attachment

KW - Virus penetration

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85061353699&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85061353699&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.21161/mjm.1461816

DO - 10.21161/mjm.1461816

M3 - Article

VL - 14

SP - 590

EP - 578

JO - Malaysian Journal of Microbiology

JF - Malaysian Journal of Microbiology

SN - 1823-8262

IS - Specialissue6

ER -