Vascular Dysfunction among Malaysian Men with Increased BMI: An Indication of Synergistic Effect of Free Testosterone and Inflammation

Amilia Aminuddin, Norizam Salamt, Ahmad Faiz Ahmad Fuad, Chin Kok Yong, Azizah Ugusman, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background and objectives: Obesity is associated with poor vascular function and may lead to future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is also related to increased inflammation and a low testosterone level. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between inflammation, testosterone level, and vascular function among subjects with an increased body mass index (BMI) and to determine whether both low testosterone and high inflammation have synergistic effects towards vascular dysfunction. Materials and Methods: A total of 303 men aged 40-80 years were recruited from Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their height, weight, blood pressure (BP), lipid, blood glucose level, total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. The carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVCF) and augmentation index (AI) were also recorded as markers of vascular function. Results: The mean age of all the subjects was 54.46 ± 9.77 years. Subjects were divided into a low/normal body mass index (BMI) group (BMI < 25 kg/m2; NG, n = 154) and high BMI group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; OG, n = 149). The mean BMI for NG was 22.20 ± 1.94 kg/m2 while for OG was 28.87 ± 3.24 kg/m2 (p < 0.01). The level of TT (OG = 21.13 ± 6.44 versus NG = 16.18 ± 6.16 nmol/L, p < 0.01) and FT (OG = 0.34 ± 0.12 versus NG = 0.39 ± 0.11 nmol/L, p < 0.01) were reduced while the level of CRP [OG = 1.05 (2.80) versus NG = 0.50 (1.50) mmol/L, p = 0.01] was increased in OG compared to NG. PWVCF (OG = 8.55 ± 1.34 versus NG = 8.52 ± 1.42 m/s, p = 0.02) and AI (OG = 16.91% ± 6.00% versus 15.88% ± 5.58%, p < 0.01) were significantly increased in OG after adjustment for other CVD risk factors. The subjects that had both a low FT and an increased CRP had higher AI when compared to those with a high CRP and high FT (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The increased BMI was associated with vascular dysfunction, mediated by a low testosterone level and increased inflammation. Furthermore, having both conditions concurrently lead to higher vascular dysfunction. Weight loss, testosterone supplementation, and the anti-inflammatory agent may be beneficial for men to prevent vascular dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMedicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
Volume55
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Sep 2019

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Blood Vessels
Testosterone
Body Mass Index
Inflammation
C-Reactive Protein
Cardiovascular Diseases
Obesity
Pulse Wave Analysis
Malaysia
Thigh
Blood Glucose
Weight Loss
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Blood Pressure
Lipids
Weights and Measures

Keywords

  • augmentation index
  • inflammation
  • obesity
  • pulse wave velocity
  • testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

@article{f90564bf4aa248559296f8ac8c2de0e5,
title = "Vascular Dysfunction among Malaysian Men with Increased BMI: An Indication of Synergistic Effect of Free Testosterone and Inflammation",
abstract = "Background and objectives: Obesity is associated with poor vascular function and may lead to future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is also related to increased inflammation and a low testosterone level. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between inflammation, testosterone level, and vascular function among subjects with an increased body mass index (BMI) and to determine whether both low testosterone and high inflammation have synergistic effects towards vascular dysfunction. Materials and Methods: A total of 303 men aged 40-80 years were recruited from Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their height, weight, blood pressure (BP), lipid, blood glucose level, total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. The carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVCF) and augmentation index (AI) were also recorded as markers of vascular function. Results: The mean age of all the subjects was 54.46 ± 9.77 years. Subjects were divided into a low/normal body mass index (BMI) group (BMI < 25 kg/m2; NG, n = 154) and high BMI group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; OG, n = 149). The mean BMI for NG was 22.20 ± 1.94 kg/m2 while for OG was 28.87 ± 3.24 kg/m2 (p < 0.01). The level of TT (OG = 21.13 ± 6.44 versus NG = 16.18 ± 6.16 nmol/L, p < 0.01) and FT (OG = 0.34 ± 0.12 versus NG = 0.39 ± 0.11 nmol/L, p < 0.01) were reduced while the level of CRP [OG = 1.05 (2.80) versus NG = 0.50 (1.50) mmol/L, p = 0.01] was increased in OG compared to NG. PWVCF (OG = 8.55 ± 1.34 versus NG = 8.52 ± 1.42 m/s, p = 0.02) and AI (OG = 16.91{\%} ± 6.00{\%} versus 15.88{\%} ± 5.58{\%}, p < 0.01) were significantly increased in OG after adjustment for other CVD risk factors. The subjects that had both a low FT and an increased CRP had higher AI when compared to those with a high CRP and high FT (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The increased BMI was associated with vascular dysfunction, mediated by a low testosterone level and increased inflammation. Furthermore, having both conditions concurrently lead to higher vascular dysfunction. Weight loss, testosterone supplementation, and the anti-inflammatory agent may be beneficial for men to prevent vascular dysfunction.",
keywords = "augmentation index, inflammation, obesity, pulse wave velocity, testosterone",
author = "Amilia Aminuddin and Norizam Salamt and {Ahmad Fuad}, {Ahmad Faiz} and {Kok Yong}, Chin and Azizah Ugusman and Soelaiman, {Ima Nirwana} and {Wan Ngah}, {Wan Zurinah}",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "8",
doi = "10.3390/medicina55090575",
language = "English",
volume = "55",
journal = "Medicina",
issn = "1010-660X",
publisher = "Kauno Medicinos Universitetas",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vascular Dysfunction among Malaysian Men with Increased BMI

T2 - An Indication of Synergistic Effect of Free Testosterone and Inflammation

AU - Aminuddin, Amilia

AU - Salamt, Norizam

AU - Ahmad Fuad, Ahmad Faiz

AU - Kok Yong, Chin

AU - Ugusman, Azizah

AU - Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

AU - Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

PY - 2019/9/8

Y1 - 2019/9/8

N2 - Background and objectives: Obesity is associated with poor vascular function and may lead to future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is also related to increased inflammation and a low testosterone level. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between inflammation, testosterone level, and vascular function among subjects with an increased body mass index (BMI) and to determine whether both low testosterone and high inflammation have synergistic effects towards vascular dysfunction. Materials and Methods: A total of 303 men aged 40-80 years were recruited from Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their height, weight, blood pressure (BP), lipid, blood glucose level, total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. The carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVCF) and augmentation index (AI) were also recorded as markers of vascular function. Results: The mean age of all the subjects was 54.46 ± 9.77 years. Subjects were divided into a low/normal body mass index (BMI) group (BMI < 25 kg/m2; NG, n = 154) and high BMI group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; OG, n = 149). The mean BMI for NG was 22.20 ± 1.94 kg/m2 while for OG was 28.87 ± 3.24 kg/m2 (p < 0.01). The level of TT (OG = 21.13 ± 6.44 versus NG = 16.18 ± 6.16 nmol/L, p < 0.01) and FT (OG = 0.34 ± 0.12 versus NG = 0.39 ± 0.11 nmol/L, p < 0.01) were reduced while the level of CRP [OG = 1.05 (2.80) versus NG = 0.50 (1.50) mmol/L, p = 0.01] was increased in OG compared to NG. PWVCF (OG = 8.55 ± 1.34 versus NG = 8.52 ± 1.42 m/s, p = 0.02) and AI (OG = 16.91% ± 6.00% versus 15.88% ± 5.58%, p < 0.01) were significantly increased in OG after adjustment for other CVD risk factors. The subjects that had both a low FT and an increased CRP had higher AI when compared to those with a high CRP and high FT (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The increased BMI was associated with vascular dysfunction, mediated by a low testosterone level and increased inflammation. Furthermore, having both conditions concurrently lead to higher vascular dysfunction. Weight loss, testosterone supplementation, and the anti-inflammatory agent may be beneficial for men to prevent vascular dysfunction.

AB - Background and objectives: Obesity is associated with poor vascular function and may lead to future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is also related to increased inflammation and a low testosterone level. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between inflammation, testosterone level, and vascular function among subjects with an increased body mass index (BMI) and to determine whether both low testosterone and high inflammation have synergistic effects towards vascular dysfunction. Materials and Methods: A total of 303 men aged 40-80 years were recruited from Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their height, weight, blood pressure (BP), lipid, blood glucose level, total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. The carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVCF) and augmentation index (AI) were also recorded as markers of vascular function. Results: The mean age of all the subjects was 54.46 ± 9.77 years. Subjects were divided into a low/normal body mass index (BMI) group (BMI < 25 kg/m2; NG, n = 154) and high BMI group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; OG, n = 149). The mean BMI for NG was 22.20 ± 1.94 kg/m2 while for OG was 28.87 ± 3.24 kg/m2 (p < 0.01). The level of TT (OG = 21.13 ± 6.44 versus NG = 16.18 ± 6.16 nmol/L, p < 0.01) and FT (OG = 0.34 ± 0.12 versus NG = 0.39 ± 0.11 nmol/L, p < 0.01) were reduced while the level of CRP [OG = 1.05 (2.80) versus NG = 0.50 (1.50) mmol/L, p = 0.01] was increased in OG compared to NG. PWVCF (OG = 8.55 ± 1.34 versus NG = 8.52 ± 1.42 m/s, p = 0.02) and AI (OG = 16.91% ± 6.00% versus 15.88% ± 5.58%, p < 0.01) were significantly increased in OG after adjustment for other CVD risk factors. The subjects that had both a low FT and an increased CRP had higher AI when compared to those with a high CRP and high FT (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The increased BMI was associated with vascular dysfunction, mediated by a low testosterone level and increased inflammation. Furthermore, having both conditions concurrently lead to higher vascular dysfunction. Weight loss, testosterone supplementation, and the anti-inflammatory agent may be beneficial for men to prevent vascular dysfunction.

KW - augmentation index

KW - inflammation

KW - obesity

KW - pulse wave velocity

KW - testosterone

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U2 - 10.3390/medicina55090575

DO - 10.3390/medicina55090575

M3 - Article

C2 - 31500378

AN - SCOPUS:85071972645

VL - 55

JO - Medicina

JF - Medicina

SN - 1010-660X

IS - 9

ER -