Validity and reliability of the malay version of the hill-bone compliance to high blood pressure therapy scale for use in primary healthcare settings in Malaysia

A cross-sectional study

Ai Theng Cheong, Tong Seng Fah, Shariff Ghazali Sazlina

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Hill-Bone compliance to high blood pressure therapy scale (HBTS) is one of the useful scales in primary care settings. It has been tested in America, Africa and Turkey with variable validity and reliability. The aim of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay version of HBTS (HBTS-M) for the Malaysian population. Materials and methods: HBTS comprises three subscales assessing compliance to medication, appointment and salt intake. The content validity of HBTS to the local population was agreed through consensus of expert panel. The 14 items used in the HBTS were adapted to reflect the local situations. It was translated into Malay and then back-translated into English. The translated version was piloted in 30 participants. This was followed by structural and predictive validity, and internal consistency testing in 262 patients with hypertension, who were on antihypertensive agent(s) for at least 1 year in two primary healthcare clinics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Exploratory factor analyses and the correlation between HBTS-M total score and blood pressure were performed. The Cronbach’s alpha was calculated accordingly. Results: Factor analysis revealed a three-component structure represented by two components on medication adherence and one on salt intake adherence. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin statistic was 0.764. The variance explained by each factors were 23.6%, 10.4% and 9.8%, respectively. However, the internal consistency for each component was suboptimal with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.64, 0.55 and 0.29, respectively. Although there were two components representing medication adherence, the theoretical concepts underlying each concept cannot be differentiated. In addition, there was no correlation between the HBTS-M total score and blood pressure. Conclusion: HBTS-M did not conform to the structural and predictive validity of the original scale. Its reliability on assessing medication and salt intake adherence would most probably to be suboptimal in the Malaysian primary care setting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-44
Number of pages9
JournalMalaysian Family Physician
Volume10
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Malaysia
Reproducibility of Results
Primary Health Care
Cross-Sectional Studies
Hypertension
Bone and Bones
Medication Adherence
Therapeutics
Salts
Statistical Factor Analysis
Blood Pressure
Turkey
Antihypertensive Agents
Population
Consensus
Appointments and Schedules

Keywords

  • Hypertension
  • Medication adherence
  • Reliability
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Family Practice
  • Community and Home Care

Cite this

@article{0b26b25be86d4aec871c5988f2246849,
title = "Validity and reliability of the malay version of the hill-bone compliance to high blood pressure therapy scale for use in primary healthcare settings in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study",
abstract = "Introduction: Hill-Bone compliance to high blood pressure therapy scale (HBTS) is one of the useful scales in primary care settings. It has been tested in America, Africa and Turkey with variable validity and reliability. The aim of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay version of HBTS (HBTS-M) for the Malaysian population. Materials and methods: HBTS comprises three subscales assessing compliance to medication, appointment and salt intake. The content validity of HBTS to the local population was agreed through consensus of expert panel. The 14 items used in the HBTS were adapted to reflect the local situations. It was translated into Malay and then back-translated into English. The translated version was piloted in 30 participants. This was followed by structural and predictive validity, and internal consistency testing in 262 patients with hypertension, who were on antihypertensive agent(s) for at least 1 year in two primary healthcare clinics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Exploratory factor analyses and the correlation between HBTS-M total score and blood pressure were performed. The Cronbach’s alpha was calculated accordingly. Results: Factor analysis revealed a three-component structure represented by two components on medication adherence and one on salt intake adherence. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin statistic was 0.764. The variance explained by each factors were 23.6{\%}, 10.4{\%} and 9.8{\%}, respectively. However, the internal consistency for each component was suboptimal with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.64, 0.55 and 0.29, respectively. Although there were two components representing medication adherence, the theoretical concepts underlying each concept cannot be differentiated. In addition, there was no correlation between the HBTS-M total score and blood pressure. Conclusion: HBTS-M did not conform to the structural and predictive validity of the original scale. Its reliability on assessing medication and salt intake adherence would most probably to be suboptimal in the Malaysian primary care setting.",
keywords = "Hypertension, Medication adherence, Reliability, Validity",
author = "Cheong, {Ai Theng} and {Seng Fah}, Tong and Sazlina, {Shariff Ghazali}",
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T1 - Validity and reliability of the malay version of the hill-bone compliance to high blood pressure therapy scale for use in primary healthcare settings in Malaysia

T2 - A cross-sectional study

AU - Cheong, Ai Theng

AU - Seng Fah, Tong

AU - Sazlina, Shariff Ghazali

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Introduction: Hill-Bone compliance to high blood pressure therapy scale (HBTS) is one of the useful scales in primary care settings. It has been tested in America, Africa and Turkey with variable validity and reliability. The aim of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay version of HBTS (HBTS-M) for the Malaysian population. Materials and methods: HBTS comprises three subscales assessing compliance to medication, appointment and salt intake. The content validity of HBTS to the local population was agreed through consensus of expert panel. The 14 items used in the HBTS were adapted to reflect the local situations. It was translated into Malay and then back-translated into English. The translated version was piloted in 30 participants. This was followed by structural and predictive validity, and internal consistency testing in 262 patients with hypertension, who were on antihypertensive agent(s) for at least 1 year in two primary healthcare clinics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Exploratory factor analyses and the correlation between HBTS-M total score and blood pressure were performed. The Cronbach’s alpha was calculated accordingly. Results: Factor analysis revealed a three-component structure represented by two components on medication adherence and one on salt intake adherence. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin statistic was 0.764. The variance explained by each factors were 23.6%, 10.4% and 9.8%, respectively. However, the internal consistency for each component was suboptimal with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.64, 0.55 and 0.29, respectively. Although there were two components representing medication adherence, the theoretical concepts underlying each concept cannot be differentiated. In addition, there was no correlation between the HBTS-M total score and blood pressure. Conclusion: HBTS-M did not conform to the structural and predictive validity of the original scale. Its reliability on assessing medication and salt intake adherence would most probably to be suboptimal in the Malaysian primary care setting.

AB - Introduction: Hill-Bone compliance to high blood pressure therapy scale (HBTS) is one of the useful scales in primary care settings. It has been tested in America, Africa and Turkey with variable validity and reliability. The aim of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay version of HBTS (HBTS-M) for the Malaysian population. Materials and methods: HBTS comprises three subscales assessing compliance to medication, appointment and salt intake. The content validity of HBTS to the local population was agreed through consensus of expert panel. The 14 items used in the HBTS were adapted to reflect the local situations. It was translated into Malay and then back-translated into English. The translated version was piloted in 30 participants. This was followed by structural and predictive validity, and internal consistency testing in 262 patients with hypertension, who were on antihypertensive agent(s) for at least 1 year in two primary healthcare clinics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Exploratory factor analyses and the correlation between HBTS-M total score and blood pressure were performed. The Cronbach’s alpha was calculated accordingly. Results: Factor analysis revealed a three-component structure represented by two components on medication adherence and one on salt intake adherence. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin statistic was 0.764. The variance explained by each factors were 23.6%, 10.4% and 9.8%, respectively. However, the internal consistency for each component was suboptimal with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.64, 0.55 and 0.29, respectively. Although there were two components representing medication adherence, the theoretical concepts underlying each concept cannot be differentiated. In addition, there was no correlation between the HBTS-M total score and blood pressure. Conclusion: HBTS-M did not conform to the structural and predictive validity of the original scale. Its reliability on assessing medication and salt intake adherence would most probably to be suboptimal in the Malaysian primary care setting.

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