Using lichen (Dirinaria sp.) as bio-indicator for airborne heavy metal at selected industrial areas in Malaysia

Azlan Abas, Norela Sulaiman, Nur Raihan Adnan, Siti Afifah Aziz, Wan Nur Syahirah Wan Nawang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In Malaysia, air pollution still measured using instrumental approach. Hence, this study used lichen as biological indicator to assess air pollution. Study has been conducted in four different locations which are Rumah Tumbuhan, UKM (Control station), Section 51 Industrial Area, Petaling Jaya, Spring Crest Industrial Area, Batu Caves and Nilai Industrial Area, Negeri Sembilan. This study used lichen Dirinaria sp.; an endemic species of tropical country; as the biological indicator. Heavy metal concentrations in lichen samples been analyzed using ICP-OES and number of motor vehicles were recorded for every sampling location. One way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation used to test the relationship between heavy metals and sampling locations also relationship between heavy metals and motor vehicles. Result shows that heavy metals such as Cr, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb have been recorded. One way ANOVA test shows there is significant relationship between heavy metals and sampling locations where F is 2.7728 and P value is 0.0001 (99% significant level). Pearson’s correlation also shows the relationships between all recorded heavy metals with number of motor vehicles where all the P value is < 0.05. This study found that lichen can be used as the alternative approach in determining the heavy metals content in the environment and it also cheaper and time saving rather than using instrumental approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-90
Number of pages6
JournalEnvironmentAsia
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

Fingerprint

Lichens
Malaysia
Heavy Metals
bioindicator
lichen
heavy metal
Motor Vehicles
Air Pollution
Sampling
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Air pollution
Analysis of Variance
sampling
atmospheric pollution
Caves
industrial area
endemic species
cave

Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Environment
  • Heavy metals
  • Lichen
  • Urban ecosystem

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Using lichen (Dirinaria sp.) as bio-indicator for airborne heavy metal at selected industrial areas in Malaysia. / Abas, Azlan; Sulaiman, Norela; Adnan, Nur Raihan; Aziz, Siti Afifah; Nawang, Wan Nur Syahirah Wan.

In: EnvironmentAsia, Vol. 12, No. 3, 09.2019, p. 85-90.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abas, Azlan ; Sulaiman, Norela ; Adnan, Nur Raihan ; Aziz, Siti Afifah ; Nawang, Wan Nur Syahirah Wan. / Using lichen (Dirinaria sp.) as bio-indicator for airborne heavy metal at selected industrial areas in Malaysia. In: EnvironmentAsia. 2019 ; Vol. 12, No. 3. pp. 85-90.
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