Usage of local raw material in the construction of candi Pengkalan bujang (Site 18), bujang valley, kedah

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18) are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18) which is located in the cemetery area of Pengkalan Bujang Mosque, Kedah has unearthed various interesting artefacts; among them are the Sung Dynasty celadon findings and also kala carvings made from granite. The main construction materials used to build the temple consisted of laterite, slates, bricks and also granite. Laterite and bricks were used to build the lower part (foot) of the temple while granite stones were used as the pillar bases, door sills, stone hem and also kala. The upper part of the temple is believed to have been built using wooden structures and the roof used palm leaves. Natural rock resources used to build this temple were local resources based on the distribution of the rocks that are aplenty in Bujang Valley. Scientific analysis on the bricks also showed that local raw material was used to produce these bricks. Scientific analysis using the X-ray fluorescence technique and X-ray diffraction technique can determine the chemical composition of the bricks, among others the mineral content of the bricks as well as the major element and trace element content. The analysis showed that open burning technique was used in the process of producing the bricks while the major and trace element content analysis showed the clay used was obtained from the Muda River and Bujang River basin. This usage of local raw material also demonstrated the local wisdom in temple construction technology and also technique in producing bricks that had existed since the 5th century AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1779-1786
Number of pages8
JournalResearch Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology
Volume7
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Brick
Raw materials
Granite
Trace elements
Rivers
Rocks
Chemical elements
Catchments
Roofs
Clay
Minerals
Fluorescence
X ray diffraction
X rays
Chemical analysis

Keywords

  • Bujang valley
  • Candi pengkalan bujang (site 18)
  • Local wisdom
  • X-ray diffraction
  • X-ray fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Computer Science(all)

Cite this

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title = "Usage of local raw material in the construction of candi Pengkalan bujang (Site 18), bujang valley, kedah",
abstract = "The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18) are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18) which is located in the cemetery area of Pengkalan Bujang Mosque, Kedah has unearthed various interesting artefacts; among them are the Sung Dynasty celadon findings and also kala carvings made from granite. The main construction materials used to build the temple consisted of laterite, slates, bricks and also granite. Laterite and bricks were used to build the lower part (foot) of the temple while granite stones were used as the pillar bases, door sills, stone hem and also kala. The upper part of the temple is believed to have been built using wooden structures and the roof used palm leaves. Natural rock resources used to build this temple were local resources based on the distribution of the rocks that are aplenty in Bujang Valley. Scientific analysis on the bricks also showed that local raw material was used to produce these bricks. Scientific analysis using the X-ray fluorescence technique and X-ray diffraction technique can determine the chemical composition of the bricks, among others the mineral content of the bricks as well as the major element and trace element content. The analysis showed that open burning technique was used in the process of producing the bricks while the major and trace element content analysis showed the clay used was obtained from the Muda River and Bujang River basin. This usage of local raw material also demonstrated the local wisdom in temple construction technology and also technique in producing bricks that had existed since the 5th century AD.",
keywords = "Bujang valley, Candi pengkalan bujang (site 18), Local wisdom, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence",
author = "Zuliskandar Ramli and {Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman}, {Nik Hassan} and Samian, {Abdul Latif} and Razman, {Muhammad Rizal} and {Syed Zakaria}, {Sharifah Zarina} and {Mohd Yusof}, {Ahmad Rizal}",
year = "2014",
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AU - Ramli, Zuliskandar

AU - Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman, Nik Hassan

AU - Samian, Abdul Latif

AU - Razman, Muhammad Rizal

AU - Syed Zakaria, Sharifah Zarina

AU - Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Rizal

PY - 2014

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N2 - The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18) are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18) which is located in the cemetery area of Pengkalan Bujang Mosque, Kedah has unearthed various interesting artefacts; among them are the Sung Dynasty celadon findings and also kala carvings made from granite. The main construction materials used to build the temple consisted of laterite, slates, bricks and also granite. Laterite and bricks were used to build the lower part (foot) of the temple while granite stones were used as the pillar bases, door sills, stone hem and also kala. The upper part of the temple is believed to have been built using wooden structures and the roof used palm leaves. Natural rock resources used to build this temple were local resources based on the distribution of the rocks that are aplenty in Bujang Valley. Scientific analysis on the bricks also showed that local raw material was used to produce these bricks. Scientific analysis using the X-ray fluorescence technique and X-ray diffraction technique can determine the chemical composition of the bricks, among others the mineral content of the bricks as well as the major element and trace element content. The analysis showed that open burning technique was used in the process of producing the bricks while the major and trace element content analysis showed the clay used was obtained from the Muda River and Bujang River basin. This usage of local raw material also demonstrated the local wisdom in temple construction technology and also technique in producing bricks that had existed since the 5th century AD.

AB - The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18) are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18) which is located in the cemetery area of Pengkalan Bujang Mosque, Kedah has unearthed various interesting artefacts; among them are the Sung Dynasty celadon findings and also kala carvings made from granite. The main construction materials used to build the temple consisted of laterite, slates, bricks and also granite. Laterite and bricks were used to build the lower part (foot) of the temple while granite stones were used as the pillar bases, door sills, stone hem and also kala. The upper part of the temple is believed to have been built using wooden structures and the roof used palm leaves. Natural rock resources used to build this temple were local resources based on the distribution of the rocks that are aplenty in Bujang Valley. Scientific analysis on the bricks also showed that local raw material was used to produce these bricks. Scientific analysis using the X-ray fluorescence technique and X-ray diffraction technique can determine the chemical composition of the bricks, among others the mineral content of the bricks as well as the major element and trace element content. The analysis showed that open burning technique was used in the process of producing the bricks while the major and trace element content analysis showed the clay used was obtained from the Muda River and Bujang River basin. This usage of local raw material also demonstrated the local wisdom in temple construction technology and also technique in producing bricks that had existed since the 5th century AD.

KW - Bujang valley

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KW - Local wisdom

KW - X-ray diffraction

KW - X-ray fluorescence

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