Trend and interannual variability of temperature in Malaysia: 1961-2002

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Abstract

This paper investigates the warming trend and interannual variability of surface air temperatures in the Malaysian region during the period 1961-2002. The trend analyses show that most regions in Malaysia experience warming over the period at comparable rates to those in regions surrounding the Bay of Bengal. The regions of Peninsular Malaysia and northern Borneo experience warming rates of between 2.7-4.0 °C/100 years. However, the warming rates are lower in the south-western region of Borneo. The interannual variability of Malaysian temperature is largely dominated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Regardless of the warming trends, all regions in Malaysia experience uniform warming during an El Niño event, particularly during the October-November-December (OND) and the January-February-March (JFM) periods. This uniform warming is associated with the latent heat released from the central eastern Pacific region and forced adiabatic subsidence in the Maritime Continent during an El Niño event. During its early development period i.e. during the July-August-September (JAS) season, the El Niñ's impact on the Malaysian temperatures is relatively weak compare to its influence during the OND and JFM seasons. However, the warming continues to the April-May-June (AMJ) season although during this period the anomalous conditions in the eastern central Pacific have begun or have returned to normal. The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode exerts an influence on Malaysian temperatures. When it co-occurs with ENSO, it tends to weaken the ENSO influence particularly during an OND period. However, it appears to have an appreciable influence only during an AMJ period when it occurs in the absence of an ENSO event. Despite the strong influence of the ENSO, the warming rates during the 42-year period appears to be least affected by interannual variability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-141
Number of pages15
JournalTheoretical and Applied Climatology
Volume89
Issue number3-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2007

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warming
Southern Oscillation
temperature
trend
surface temperature
subsidence
air temperature
rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Trend and interannual variability of temperature in Malaysia : 1961-2002. / Tangang @ Tajudin Mahmud, Fredolin; Liew, Ju Neng; Ahmad, Shahruddin.

In: Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 89, No. 3-4, 07.2007, p. 127-141.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "This paper investigates the warming trend and interannual variability of surface air temperatures in the Malaysian region during the period 1961-2002. The trend analyses show that most regions in Malaysia experience warming over the period at comparable rates to those in regions surrounding the Bay of Bengal. The regions of Peninsular Malaysia and northern Borneo experience warming rates of between 2.7-4.0 °C/100 years. However, the warming rates are lower in the south-western region of Borneo. The interannual variability of Malaysian temperature is largely dominated by the El Ni{\~n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Regardless of the warming trends, all regions in Malaysia experience uniform warming during an El Ni{\~n}o event, particularly during the October-November-December (OND) and the January-February-March (JFM) periods. This uniform warming is associated with the latent heat released from the central eastern Pacific region and forced adiabatic subsidence in the Maritime Continent during an El Ni{\~n}o event. During its early development period i.e. during the July-August-September (JAS) season, the El Ni{\~n}'s impact on the Malaysian temperatures is relatively weak compare to its influence during the OND and JFM seasons. However, the warming continues to the April-May-June (AMJ) season although during this period the anomalous conditions in the eastern central Pacific have begun or have returned to normal. The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode exerts an influence on Malaysian temperatures. When it co-occurs with ENSO, it tends to weaken the ENSO influence particularly during an OND period. However, it appears to have an appreciable influence only during an AMJ period when it occurs in the absence of an ENSO event. Despite the strong influence of the ENSO, the warming rates during the 42-year period appears to be least affected by interannual variability.",
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