Tocotrienol offers better protection than tocopherol from free radical-induced damage of rat bone

Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, B. A K Khalid, D. A. Luke, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman

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Abstract

Free radicals generated by ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA) can activate osteoclastic activity and this is associated with elevation of the bone resorbing cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2 mg/kg FeNTA (2 mg iron/kg) on the levels of serum IL-1 and IL-6 with or without supplementation with a palm oil tocotrienol mixture or α-tocopherol acetate in Wistar rats. The FeNTA was found to elevate levels of IL-1 and IL-6. Only the palm oil tocotrienol mixture at doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg was able to prevent FeNTA-induced increases in IL-1 (P < 0.01). Both the palm oil tocotrienol mixture and α-tocopherol acetate, at doses of 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg, were able to reduce FeNTA-induced increases in IL-6 (P < 0.05). Therefore, the palm oil tocotrienol mixture was better than pure α-tocopherol acetate in protecting bone against FeNTA (free radical)-induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. Supplementation with the palm oil tocotrienol mixture or α-tocopherol acetate at 100 mg/kg restored the reduction in serum osteocalcin levels due to ageing, as seen in the saline (control) group (P < 0.05). All doses of the palm oil tocotrienol mixture decreased urine deoxypyridinoline cross-link (DPD) significantly compared with the control group, whereas a trend for decreased urine DPD was only seen for doses of 60 mg/kg onwards of α-tocopherol acetate (P < 0.05). Bone histomorphometric analyses have shown that FeNTA injections significantly lowered mean osteoblast number (P < 0.001) and the bone formation rate (P < 0.001), but raised osteoclast number (P < 0.05) and the ratio of eroded surface/bone surface (P < 0.001) compared with the saline (control) group. Supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent all these FeNTA-induced changes, but a similar dose of α-tocopherol acetate was found to be effective only for mean osteoclast number. Injections of FeNTA were also shown to reduce trabecular bone volume (P < 0.001) and trabecular thickness (P < 0.05), whereas only supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent these FeNTA-induced changes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)761-770
Number of pages10
JournalClinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
Volume32
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2005

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Tocotrienols
Tocopherols
Free Radicals
alpha-Tocopherol
Bone and Bones
Interleukin-1
Interleukin-6
Osteoclasts
Control Groups
ferric nitrilotriacetate
Urine
Cytokines
Injections
palm oil
Osteocalcin
Serum
Osteoblasts
Osteogenesis
Wistar Rats
Iron

Keywords

  • Ferric nitrilotriacetate
  • Interleukin-1
  • Interleukin-6
  • Vitamin E

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this

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title = "Tocotrienol offers better protection than tocopherol from free radical-induced damage of rat bone",
abstract = "Free radicals generated by ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA) can activate osteoclastic activity and this is associated with elevation of the bone resorbing cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2 mg/kg FeNTA (2 mg iron/kg) on the levels of serum IL-1 and IL-6 with or without supplementation with a palm oil tocotrienol mixture or α-tocopherol acetate in Wistar rats. The FeNTA was found to elevate levels of IL-1 and IL-6. Only the palm oil tocotrienol mixture at doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg was able to prevent FeNTA-induced increases in IL-1 (P < 0.01). Both the palm oil tocotrienol mixture and α-tocopherol acetate, at doses of 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg, were able to reduce FeNTA-induced increases in IL-6 (P < 0.05). Therefore, the palm oil tocotrienol mixture was better than pure α-tocopherol acetate in protecting bone against FeNTA (free radical)-induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. Supplementation with the palm oil tocotrienol mixture or α-tocopherol acetate at 100 mg/kg restored the reduction in serum osteocalcin levels due to ageing, as seen in the saline (control) group (P < 0.05). All doses of the palm oil tocotrienol mixture decreased urine deoxypyridinoline cross-link (DPD) significantly compared with the control group, whereas a trend for decreased urine DPD was only seen for doses of 60 mg/kg onwards of α-tocopherol acetate (P < 0.05). Bone histomorphometric analyses have shown that FeNTA injections significantly lowered mean osteoblast number (P < 0.001) and the bone formation rate (P < 0.001), but raised osteoclast number (P < 0.05) and the ratio of eroded surface/bone surface (P < 0.001) compared with the saline (control) group. Supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent all these FeNTA-induced changes, but a similar dose of α-tocopherol acetate was found to be effective only for mean osteoclast number. Injections of FeNTA were also shown to reduce trabecular bone volume (P < 0.001) and trabecular thickness (P < 0.05), whereas only supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent these FeNTA-induced changes.",
keywords = "Ferric nitrilotriacetate, Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6, Vitamin E",
author = "Shuid, {Ahmad Nazrun} and Khalid, {B. A K} and Luke, {D. A.} and Soelaiman, {Ima Nirwana}",
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T1 - Tocotrienol offers better protection than tocopherol from free radical-induced damage of rat bone

AU - Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

AU - Khalid, B. A K

AU - Luke, D. A.

AU - Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

PY - 2005/9

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N2 - Free radicals generated by ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA) can activate osteoclastic activity and this is associated with elevation of the bone resorbing cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2 mg/kg FeNTA (2 mg iron/kg) on the levels of serum IL-1 and IL-6 with or without supplementation with a palm oil tocotrienol mixture or α-tocopherol acetate in Wistar rats. The FeNTA was found to elevate levels of IL-1 and IL-6. Only the palm oil tocotrienol mixture at doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg was able to prevent FeNTA-induced increases in IL-1 (P < 0.01). Both the palm oil tocotrienol mixture and α-tocopherol acetate, at doses of 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg, were able to reduce FeNTA-induced increases in IL-6 (P < 0.05). Therefore, the palm oil tocotrienol mixture was better than pure α-tocopherol acetate in protecting bone against FeNTA (free radical)-induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. Supplementation with the palm oil tocotrienol mixture or α-tocopherol acetate at 100 mg/kg restored the reduction in serum osteocalcin levels due to ageing, as seen in the saline (control) group (P < 0.05). All doses of the palm oil tocotrienol mixture decreased urine deoxypyridinoline cross-link (DPD) significantly compared with the control group, whereas a trend for decreased urine DPD was only seen for doses of 60 mg/kg onwards of α-tocopherol acetate (P < 0.05). Bone histomorphometric analyses have shown that FeNTA injections significantly lowered mean osteoblast number (P < 0.001) and the bone formation rate (P < 0.001), but raised osteoclast number (P < 0.05) and the ratio of eroded surface/bone surface (P < 0.001) compared with the saline (control) group. Supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent all these FeNTA-induced changes, but a similar dose of α-tocopherol acetate was found to be effective only for mean osteoclast number. Injections of FeNTA were also shown to reduce trabecular bone volume (P < 0.001) and trabecular thickness (P < 0.05), whereas only supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent these FeNTA-induced changes.

AB - Free radicals generated by ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA) can activate osteoclastic activity and this is associated with elevation of the bone resorbing cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2 mg/kg FeNTA (2 mg iron/kg) on the levels of serum IL-1 and IL-6 with or without supplementation with a palm oil tocotrienol mixture or α-tocopherol acetate in Wistar rats. The FeNTA was found to elevate levels of IL-1 and IL-6. Only the palm oil tocotrienol mixture at doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg was able to prevent FeNTA-induced increases in IL-1 (P < 0.01). Both the palm oil tocotrienol mixture and α-tocopherol acetate, at doses of 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg, were able to reduce FeNTA-induced increases in IL-6 (P < 0.05). Therefore, the palm oil tocotrienol mixture was better than pure α-tocopherol acetate in protecting bone against FeNTA (free radical)-induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. Supplementation with the palm oil tocotrienol mixture or α-tocopherol acetate at 100 mg/kg restored the reduction in serum osteocalcin levels due to ageing, as seen in the saline (control) group (P < 0.05). All doses of the palm oil tocotrienol mixture decreased urine deoxypyridinoline cross-link (DPD) significantly compared with the control group, whereas a trend for decreased urine DPD was only seen for doses of 60 mg/kg onwards of α-tocopherol acetate (P < 0.05). Bone histomorphometric analyses have shown that FeNTA injections significantly lowered mean osteoblast number (P < 0.001) and the bone formation rate (P < 0.001), but raised osteoclast number (P < 0.05) and the ratio of eroded surface/bone surface (P < 0.001) compared with the saline (control) group. Supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent all these FeNTA-induced changes, but a similar dose of α-tocopherol acetate was found to be effective only for mean osteoclast number. Injections of FeNTA were also shown to reduce trabecular bone volume (P < 0.001) and trabecular thickness (P < 0.05), whereas only supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent these FeNTA-induced changes.

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KW - Interleukin-1

KW - Interleukin-6

KW - Vitamin E

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