Three-year study of spinal cord injury outcomes and related secondary complications in a tertiary centre - A retrospective analysis

Leonard H. Joseph, Ohnmar Htwe Hj Ismail, Amaramalar Selvi Naicker, Pua Pek Ying, Abdul R. Mohammad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes and occurrence of secondary complications in an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) during the in-patient phase. Material and methods: The records of all patients (n = 357) admitted between June 2003 and June 2006 to the spinal ward were reviewed retrospectively. A proforma was prepared to obtain relevant information regarding demographic data, complications acquired and treatment received by the patients. Results: Of 357 patients, only 77 (58 male, 19 female) who presented with neurological deficits were included in this study. Thirty-nine percent of them were between 54 and 64 years. Motor vehicle accidents (39%) were identified to be the leading cause of SCI. Paraplegia (72.7%) was the commonest resultant outcome. In terms of outcome grading, a larger number of subjects were in ASIA D (42%) followed by ASIA C (31.2%), with only 5.2% recovered fully. Of the complications, bladder and bowel problems were the most frequent (65%), followed by spasticity (27.3%) and pressure ulcer (26%). Obviously those with tetraplegia were at higher risk for all secondary complications. Mechanical loading was effective in prevention of spasticity in around 70% of cases. The importance of breathing exercises was evident in that 80.5% did not develop pulmonary complications Although psychological problems had a lower incidence (13%), it could be due to the fact that it was under-recognized. Depressive symptoms were the predominant mode of presentation. Conclusions: This study gives us information on SCI related complications in our centre which then sets a background to look into reducing incidence of urinary problems, pressure ulcer and severity of spasticity, and also implementing and improving SCI care services.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)190-194
Number of pages5
JournalArchives of Medical Science
Volume5
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Fingerprint

Spinal Cord Injuries
Pressure Ulcer
Breathing Exercises
Quadriplegia
Paraplegia
Incidence
Motor Vehicles
Accidents
Urinary Bladder
Demography
Depression
Psychology
Lung
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Complications
  • Epidemiology
  • Spinal cord injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Three-year study of spinal cord injury outcomes and related secondary complications in a tertiary centre - A retrospective analysis. / Joseph, Leonard H.; Ismail, Ohnmar Htwe Hj; Selvi Naicker, Amaramalar; Ying, Pua Pek; Mohammad, Abdul R.

In: Archives of Medical Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2009, p. 190-194.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Joseph, Leonard H. ; Ismail, Ohnmar Htwe Hj ; Selvi Naicker, Amaramalar ; Ying, Pua Pek ; Mohammad, Abdul R. / Three-year study of spinal cord injury outcomes and related secondary complications in a tertiary centre - A retrospective analysis. In: Archives of Medical Science. 2009 ; Vol. 5, No. 2. pp. 190-194.
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