Thickened carotid intima media thickness and carotid atherosclerosis among lupus nephritis patients: The role of traditional and lupus-specific factors

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Abstract

Aim: The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and atherosclerosis among lupus nephritis (LN) patients and to study their associated risk factors. Method: In this cross-sectional study, carotid ultrasonography was performed on consecutive LN patients to determine CIMT and presence of carotid plaques. CIMT was considered to be abnormally thickened if it was more than the 75th percentile matched for age and sex from the 'Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study'. The association between thickened CIMT with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and lupus characteristics were examined. A total of 83 patients with the mean age of 33.6±10years were recruited. Results: Fourteen patients (16.9%) had thickened CIMT and three (3.6%) had carotid plaques. On univariate analysis, traditional risk factors significantly associated with thickened CIMT (P<0.05) were patient's current age, diabetes mellitus and waist circumference. Meanwhile, a lower serum C4 levels and higher serum C-reactive protein levels were the lupus-specific factors associated with thickened CIMT (P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of thickened CIMT were age of diagnosis, lower serum C4 levels and waist circumference (P<0.05). Conclusion: More lupus specific factors were independently associated with thickened CIMT, suggesting that a multi-targeted approach of treatment addressing both the lupus and traditional cardiovascular risks are very important. Larger prospective studies of these special risk factors are indicated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267-275
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011

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Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Lupus Nephritis
Carotid Artery Diseases
Waist Circumference
Serum
C-Reactive Protein
Blood Proteins
Ultrasonography
Atherosclerosis
Diabetes Mellitus
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT)
  • Lupus nephritis
  • Lupus specific risk factors
  • Traditional cardiovascular risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology

Cite this

@article{e61ff4bd3f024f1fb6b1ddfac3586a5f,
title = "Thickened carotid intima media thickness and carotid atherosclerosis among lupus nephritis patients: The role of traditional and lupus-specific factors",
abstract = "Aim: The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and atherosclerosis among lupus nephritis (LN) patients and to study their associated risk factors. Method: In this cross-sectional study, carotid ultrasonography was performed on consecutive LN patients to determine CIMT and presence of carotid plaques. CIMT was considered to be abnormally thickened if it was more than the 75th percentile matched for age and sex from the 'Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study'. The association between thickened CIMT with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and lupus characteristics were examined. A total of 83 patients with the mean age of 33.6±10years were recruited. Results: Fourteen patients (16.9{\%}) had thickened CIMT and three (3.6{\%}) had carotid plaques. On univariate analysis, traditional risk factors significantly associated with thickened CIMT (P<0.05) were patient's current age, diabetes mellitus and waist circumference. Meanwhile, a lower serum C4 levels and higher serum C-reactive protein levels were the lupus-specific factors associated with thickened CIMT (P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of thickened CIMT were age of diagnosis, lower serum C4 levels and waist circumference (P<0.05). Conclusion: More lupus specific factors were independently associated with thickened CIMT, suggesting that a multi-targeted approach of treatment addressing both the lupus and traditional cardiovascular risks are very important. Larger prospective studies of these special risk factors are indicated.",
keywords = "Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), Lupus nephritis, Lupus specific risk factors, Traditional cardiovascular risk factors",
author = "Shaharir, {Syahrul Sazliyana} and {Mohamed Said}, {Mohd Shahrir} and Kong, {Norella C T} and Tan, {Hui Jan} and Hamidon, {Bin Basri} and {Mohd. Tamil}, Azmi",
year = "2011",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1111/j.1756-185X.2011.01638.x",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Thickened carotid intima media thickness and carotid atherosclerosis among lupus nephritis patients

T2 - The role of traditional and lupus-specific factors

AU - Shaharir, Syahrul Sazliyana

AU - Mohamed Said, Mohd Shahrir

AU - Kong, Norella C T

AU - Tan, Hui Jan

AU - Hamidon, Bin Basri

AU - Mohd. Tamil, Azmi

PY - 2011/8

Y1 - 2011/8

N2 - Aim: The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and atherosclerosis among lupus nephritis (LN) patients and to study their associated risk factors. Method: In this cross-sectional study, carotid ultrasonography was performed on consecutive LN patients to determine CIMT and presence of carotid plaques. CIMT was considered to be abnormally thickened if it was more than the 75th percentile matched for age and sex from the 'Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study'. The association between thickened CIMT with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and lupus characteristics were examined. A total of 83 patients with the mean age of 33.6±10years were recruited. Results: Fourteen patients (16.9%) had thickened CIMT and three (3.6%) had carotid plaques. On univariate analysis, traditional risk factors significantly associated with thickened CIMT (P<0.05) were patient's current age, diabetes mellitus and waist circumference. Meanwhile, a lower serum C4 levels and higher serum C-reactive protein levels were the lupus-specific factors associated with thickened CIMT (P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of thickened CIMT were age of diagnosis, lower serum C4 levels and waist circumference (P<0.05). Conclusion: More lupus specific factors were independently associated with thickened CIMT, suggesting that a multi-targeted approach of treatment addressing both the lupus and traditional cardiovascular risks are very important. Larger prospective studies of these special risk factors are indicated.

AB - Aim: The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and atherosclerosis among lupus nephritis (LN) patients and to study their associated risk factors. Method: In this cross-sectional study, carotid ultrasonography was performed on consecutive LN patients to determine CIMT and presence of carotid plaques. CIMT was considered to be abnormally thickened if it was more than the 75th percentile matched for age and sex from the 'Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study'. The association between thickened CIMT with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and lupus characteristics were examined. A total of 83 patients with the mean age of 33.6±10years were recruited. Results: Fourteen patients (16.9%) had thickened CIMT and three (3.6%) had carotid plaques. On univariate analysis, traditional risk factors significantly associated with thickened CIMT (P<0.05) were patient's current age, diabetes mellitus and waist circumference. Meanwhile, a lower serum C4 levels and higher serum C-reactive protein levels were the lupus-specific factors associated with thickened CIMT (P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of thickened CIMT were age of diagnosis, lower serum C4 levels and waist circumference (P<0.05). Conclusion: More lupus specific factors were independently associated with thickened CIMT, suggesting that a multi-targeted approach of treatment addressing both the lupus and traditional cardiovascular risks are very important. Larger prospective studies of these special risk factors are indicated.

KW - Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT)

KW - Lupus nephritis

KW - Lupus specific risk factors

KW - Traditional cardiovascular risk factors

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