The reliability of Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Comparing to Mexameter (Mx 18) in measuring skin color among first trimester pregnant mothers in Petaling District, Malaysia

Zaleha Md Isa, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Noriklil Bukhary Ismail Bukhari, Khor Geok Lin, Zaleha Abdullah Mahdy, Haslinda Hassan, Noor Sharifatul Hana Yeop, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Malaysia comprises of multiple ethnic groups, each with a different skin color. The skin color type is related with risk factor of skin cancer and vitamin D deficiency. Thus, the device commonly used for skin color measurement are Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Measurement (FSTCM) and Mexameter (Mx 18). The objective of this study was to test the reliability of FSTCM in comparison to MX 18 in measuring skin color. A cross sectional study among first trimester pregnant mothers was performed at their first antenatal visit. The samples were taken from subjects from different ethnic backgrounds with different skin color who were currently living in one of the urban districts in Malaysia. A total of 396 (98%) respondents, aged 18-40 years old had completed the skin test using both MX 18 and FSTCM measurement. The mean age of respondents was 28.07 ± 4.09 years old. The skin type for Malays ranged from skin type I to skin type VI, Chinese ranged between skin type I to IV, meanwhile for Indians the skin type ranged from IV to VI. The Kappa value was 0.731 (p <0.001) for inter-researcher agreement for FSTCM measurement. Thus, the agreement was substantial as they agreed on 80% of the subjects. Meanwhile, for Mx 18, the intra-class correlation (ICC) for inter-researcher with average measure was 0.985 (95%CI-0.982-0.988). The intra-class correlation (ICC) between different time points was 0.99, estimating the reliability of Mx 18. Spearman correlation coefficient between FSTCM and Mx 18 was 0.88 (p <0.001). As a conclusion, the predominant skin color type for Malays is skin type III, while for Chinese is skin type II. The Indians skin are mostly in type V-VI. The ethnicity will not determine the skin type color as the skin types are overlapping between the ethnics. Hence, FSTCM which is a reliable and cheap device can be used for skin color screening purposes. Nevertheless, Mx 18 is an appropriate device to be used for diagnostic and cosmetic purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-65
Number of pages7
JournalMalaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine
Volume16
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Skin Pigmentation
Malaysia
First Pregnancy Trimester
Mothers
Skin
Equipment and Supplies
Research Personnel
Vitamin D Deficiency
Skin Neoplasms
Skin Tests

Keywords

  • Fitzpatrick scale
  • Malaysia
  • Mexameter (Mx 18)
  • Pregnant mothers
  • Reliability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

The reliability of Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Comparing to Mexameter (Mx 18) in measuring skin color among first trimester pregnant mothers in Petaling District, Malaysia. / Md Isa, Zaleha; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Bukhari, Noriklil Bukhary Ismail; Lin, Khor Geok; Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha; Hassan, Haslinda; Yeop, Noor Sharifatul Hana; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal.

In: Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2016, p. 59-65.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Md Isa, Zaleha ; Shamsuddin, Khadijah ; Bukhari, Noriklil Bukhary Ismail ; Lin, Khor Geok ; Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha ; Hassan, Haslinda ; Yeop, Noor Sharifatul Hana ; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal. / The reliability of Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Comparing to Mexameter (Mx 18) in measuring skin color among first trimester pregnant mothers in Petaling District, Malaysia. In: Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 3. pp. 59-65.
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abstract = "Malaysia comprises of multiple ethnic groups, each with a different skin color. The skin color type is related with risk factor of skin cancer and vitamin D deficiency. Thus, the device commonly used for skin color measurement are Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Measurement (FSTCM) and Mexameter (Mx 18). The objective of this study was to test the reliability of FSTCM in comparison to MX 18 in measuring skin color. A cross sectional study among first trimester pregnant mothers was performed at their first antenatal visit. The samples were taken from subjects from different ethnic backgrounds with different skin color who were currently living in one of the urban districts in Malaysia. A total of 396 (98{\%}) respondents, aged 18-40 years old had completed the skin test using both MX 18 and FSTCM measurement. The mean age of respondents was 28.07 ± 4.09 years old. The skin type for Malays ranged from skin type I to skin type VI, Chinese ranged between skin type I to IV, meanwhile for Indians the skin type ranged from IV to VI. The Kappa value was 0.731 (p <0.001) for inter-researcher agreement for FSTCM measurement. Thus, the agreement was substantial as they agreed on 80{\%} of the subjects. Meanwhile, for Mx 18, the intra-class correlation (ICC) for inter-researcher with average measure was 0.985 (95{\%}CI-0.982-0.988). The intra-class correlation (ICC) between different time points was 0.99, estimating the reliability of Mx 18. Spearman correlation coefficient between FSTCM and Mx 18 was 0.88 (p <0.001). As a conclusion, the predominant skin color type for Malays is skin type III, while for Chinese is skin type II. The Indians skin are mostly in type V-VI. The ethnicity will not determine the skin type color as the skin types are overlapping between the ethnics. Hence, FSTCM which is a reliable and cheap device can be used for skin color screening purposes. Nevertheless, Mx 18 is an appropriate device to be used for diagnostic and cosmetic purposes.",
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AU - Bukhari, Noriklil Bukhary Ismail

AU - Lin, Khor Geok

AU - Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha

AU - Hassan, Haslinda

AU - Yeop, Noor Sharifatul Hana

AU - Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

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N2 - Malaysia comprises of multiple ethnic groups, each with a different skin color. The skin color type is related with risk factor of skin cancer and vitamin D deficiency. Thus, the device commonly used for skin color measurement are Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Measurement (FSTCM) and Mexameter (Mx 18). The objective of this study was to test the reliability of FSTCM in comparison to MX 18 in measuring skin color. A cross sectional study among first trimester pregnant mothers was performed at their first antenatal visit. The samples were taken from subjects from different ethnic backgrounds with different skin color who were currently living in one of the urban districts in Malaysia. A total of 396 (98%) respondents, aged 18-40 years old had completed the skin test using both MX 18 and FSTCM measurement. The mean age of respondents was 28.07 ± 4.09 years old. The skin type for Malays ranged from skin type I to skin type VI, Chinese ranged between skin type I to IV, meanwhile for Indians the skin type ranged from IV to VI. The Kappa value was 0.731 (p <0.001) for inter-researcher agreement for FSTCM measurement. Thus, the agreement was substantial as they agreed on 80% of the subjects. Meanwhile, for Mx 18, the intra-class correlation (ICC) for inter-researcher with average measure was 0.985 (95%CI-0.982-0.988). The intra-class correlation (ICC) between different time points was 0.99, estimating the reliability of Mx 18. Spearman correlation coefficient between FSTCM and Mx 18 was 0.88 (p <0.001). As a conclusion, the predominant skin color type for Malays is skin type III, while for Chinese is skin type II. The Indians skin are mostly in type V-VI. The ethnicity will not determine the skin type color as the skin types are overlapping between the ethnics. Hence, FSTCM which is a reliable and cheap device can be used for skin color screening purposes. Nevertheless, Mx 18 is an appropriate device to be used for diagnostic and cosmetic purposes.

AB - Malaysia comprises of multiple ethnic groups, each with a different skin color. The skin color type is related with risk factor of skin cancer and vitamin D deficiency. Thus, the device commonly used for skin color measurement are Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Measurement (FSTCM) and Mexameter (Mx 18). The objective of this study was to test the reliability of FSTCM in comparison to MX 18 in measuring skin color. A cross sectional study among first trimester pregnant mothers was performed at their first antenatal visit. The samples were taken from subjects from different ethnic backgrounds with different skin color who were currently living in one of the urban districts in Malaysia. A total of 396 (98%) respondents, aged 18-40 years old had completed the skin test using both MX 18 and FSTCM measurement. The mean age of respondents was 28.07 ± 4.09 years old. The skin type for Malays ranged from skin type I to skin type VI, Chinese ranged between skin type I to IV, meanwhile for Indians the skin type ranged from IV to VI. The Kappa value was 0.731 (p <0.001) for inter-researcher agreement for FSTCM measurement. Thus, the agreement was substantial as they agreed on 80% of the subjects. Meanwhile, for Mx 18, the intra-class correlation (ICC) for inter-researcher with average measure was 0.985 (95%CI-0.982-0.988). The intra-class correlation (ICC) between different time points was 0.99, estimating the reliability of Mx 18. Spearman correlation coefficient between FSTCM and Mx 18 was 0.88 (p <0.001). As a conclusion, the predominant skin color type for Malays is skin type III, while for Chinese is skin type II. The Indians skin are mostly in type V-VI. The ethnicity will not determine the skin type color as the skin types are overlapping between the ethnics. Hence, FSTCM which is a reliable and cheap device can be used for skin color screening purposes. Nevertheless, Mx 18 is an appropriate device to be used for diagnostic and cosmetic purposes.

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KW - Mexameter (Mx 18)

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