The PASS cognitive functions of children with reading difficulties

A Malaysian study

Ooi Boon Keat, Khaidzir Ismail

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The origin of developmental delay and the gap between achievement and intellectual ability is clearer to be seen by the age of 9 as young primary student. This study examined cognitive processing of children with reading disabilities based of Luria's three functional units of brain which are Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS). Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) is capable of measuring the PASS cognitive processing, while Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WART-4) was used to determine reading processes. CAS and WRAT were administered individually to 50 ESL poor readers in standard 3 at Sekolah Kebangsaan Bandar Tun Hussein Onn (SKBTHO). Profiles of the CAS and WRAT-4 were obtained, while the specific weakness of cognitive processing and reading processes were detected from the children with ESL reading difficulties. There were distinct PASS cognitive profiles among the poor readers of ESL children and gender was not the determinant. The PASS scale standard scores showed 41% (n=20) is at average level, 30% (n=16) is at low average level, 26% (n=13) is at below average level and only 2% (n=1) is at well below average level. There was no significant different between girls and boys in term of cognitive processing. However, girl subjects scored higher on Planning and Attention processing while boy subjects scored higher on Simultaneous and Successive processing. Overall, the poor ESL readers were significantly low for Simultaneous processing. Result of WRAT-4 indicated the subjects have low scores on comprehension (M = 66.64; SD = 5.12) and spelling (M = 68.00; SD = 12.07). Analysis correlation was used to indicate the relationship of cognitive processes and reading processes. There was significant relationship between PASS cognitive processing and reading composite (r = .382, p < .01) especially on word reading (r = .447, p < .01). The specific cognitive processes of planning and successive had significant relationship with word reading (r = .351, p < .05; r = .286, p < .05) respectively. While attention processing was significantly negative correlated with comprehension (r = -.296, p < .01). The simultaneous processing was significantly correlated with reading composite (r = .321, p < .05). No significant correlation between the spelling and the PASS cognitive processing was found. However, planning process was significantly correlated with the attention and successive processes (r = .516, p < .01; r = .338, p < .05) among the subjects. Reasons for this finding are suggested in the discussion and intervention was proposed that might help abilities of particular cognitive processing in enhancing reading processes.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProcedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
Pages2182-2193
Number of pages12
Volume5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
EventWorld Conference on Psychology, Counselling and Guidance, WCPCG-2010 - Antalya, Turkey
Duration: 22 Apr 201025 Apr 2010

Other

OtherWorld Conference on Psychology, Counselling and Guidance, WCPCG-2010
CountryTurkey
CityAntalya
Period22/4/1025/4/10

Fingerprint

Cognition
Reading
planning
Aptitude
comprehension
Disabled Children
achievement test
ability
planning process
brain
disability
determinants
Students
gender
Brain

Keywords

  • CAS
  • ESL
  • PASS cognitive functions
  • Reading difficulties
  • Reading processes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

The PASS cognitive functions of children with reading difficulties : A Malaysian study. / Keat, Ooi Boon; Ismail, Khaidzir.

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 5 2010. p. 2182-2193.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Keat, OB & Ismail, K 2010, The PASS cognitive functions of children with reading difficulties: A Malaysian study. in Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. vol. 5, pp. 2182-2193, World Conference on Psychology, Counselling and Guidance, WCPCG-2010, Antalya, Turkey, 22/4/10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.434
Keat, Ooi Boon ; Ismail, Khaidzir. / The PASS cognitive functions of children with reading difficulties : A Malaysian study. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 5 2010. pp. 2182-2193
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