The Growth Inhibitory Potential and Antimetastatic Effect of Camel Urine on Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

Firdaus Romli, Nadiah Abu, Faten A. Khorshid, Syed Umar Faruq Syed Najmuddin, Yeap Swee Keong, Nurul Elyani Mohamad, Muhajir Hamid, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen, Nik Mohd Afizan Nik Abd Rahman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although it may sound unpleasant, camel urine has been consumed extensively for years in the Middle East as it is believed to be able to treat a wide range of diseases such as fever, cold, or even cancer. People usually take it by mixing small drops with camel milk or take it directly. The project aims to study the effects of camel urine in inhibiting the growth potential and metastatic ability of 4T1 cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo. Based on the MTT result, the cytotoxicity of camel urine against 4T1 cell was established, and it was dose-dependent. Additionally, the antimetastatic potential of camel urine was tested by running several assays such as scratch assay, migration and invasion assay, and mouse aortic ring assay with promising results in the ability of camel urine to inhibit metastatic process of the 4T1 cells. In order to fully establish camel urine’s potential, an in vivo study was carried out by treating mice inoculated with 4T1 cells with 2 different doses of camel urine. By the end of the treatment period, the tumor in both treated groups had reduced in size as compared to the control group. Additional assays such as the TUNEL assay, immunophenotyping, cytokine level detection assay, clonogenic assay, and proteome profiler demonstrated the capability of camel urine to reduce and inhibit the metastatic potential of 4T1 cells in vivo. To sum up, further study of anticancer properties of camel urine is justified, as evidenced through the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out. Better results were obtained at higher concentration of camel urine used in vivo. Apart from that, this project has laid out the mechanisms employed by the substance to inhibit the growth and the metastatic process of the 4T1 cell.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)540-555
Number of pages16
JournalIntegrative Cancer Therapies
Volume16
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Camelus
Urine
Breast Neoplasms
Growth
In Vitro Techniques
Immunophenotyping
Neoplasms
Middle East
In Situ Nick-End Labeling
Proteome
Running
Milk
Fever

Keywords

  • 4T1 cell
  • anti-angiogenesis
  • antimetastasis
  • breast cancer
  • camel
  • camel urine
  • immunomodulatory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

Romli, F., Abu, N., Khorshid, F. A., Syed Najmuddin, S. U. F., Keong, Y. S., Mohamad, N. E., ... Nik Abd Rahman, N. M. A. (2017). The Growth Inhibitory Potential and Antimetastatic Effect of Camel Urine on Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 16(4), 540-555. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735416656051

The Growth Inhibitory Potential and Antimetastatic Effect of Camel Urine on Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo. / Romli, Firdaus; Abu, Nadiah; Khorshid, Faten A.; Syed Najmuddin, Syed Umar Faruq; Keong, Yeap Swee; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Hamid, Muhajir; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan.

In: Integrative Cancer Therapies, Vol. 16, No. 4, 01.12.2017, p. 540-555.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Romli, F, Abu, N, Khorshid, FA, Syed Najmuddin, SUF, Keong, YS, Mohamad, NE, Hamid, M, Alitheen, NB & Nik Abd Rahman, NMA 2017, 'The Growth Inhibitory Potential and Antimetastatic Effect of Camel Urine on Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo', Integrative Cancer Therapies, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 540-555. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735416656051
Romli, Firdaus ; Abu, Nadiah ; Khorshid, Faten A. ; Syed Najmuddin, Syed Umar Faruq ; Keong, Yeap Swee ; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani ; Hamid, Muhajir ; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu ; Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan. / The Growth Inhibitory Potential and Antimetastatic Effect of Camel Urine on Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo. In: Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2017 ; Vol. 16, No. 4. pp. 540-555.
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