The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides

Syazwani Mohd Fadzil, Pavel Hrma, Jarrod Crum, Khoo Kok Siong Kok Siong, Mohammad Fadzlee Ngatiman, Riduan Mt Said

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Korean spent nuclear fuel will reach the capacity of the available temporary storage by 2016. Pyroprocessing and direct disposal seems to be an alternative way to manage and reuse spent nuclear fuel while avoiding the wet reprocessing technology. Pyroprocessing produces several wastes streams, including metals, salts, and rare earths, which must be converted into stabilized form. A suitable form for rare earth immobilization is borosilicate glass. The borosilicate glass form exhibits excellent durability, allows a high waste loading, and is easy to process. In this work, we combined the rare earths waste of composition (in wt%) 39.2Nd2O3-22.7CeO 2-11.7La2O3-10.9PrO2-1.3Eu 2O3-1.3Gd2O3-8.1Sm2O 3-4.8Y2O3 with a baseline glass of composition 60.2SiO2-16.0B2O3-12.6Na2O-3. 8Al2O3-5.7CaO-1.7ZrO2. Crystallization in waste glasses occurs as the waste loading increases. It may produce complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. To study crystal formation, we initially made glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% of La2O3 and then glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% of the complete rare earth mix. Samples were heat-treated for 24 hours at temperatures 800°C to 1150°C in 50°C increments. Quenched samples were analyzed using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Stillwellite (LaBSiO5) and oxyapatite (Ca 2La8Si6O26) were found in glasses containing La2O3, while oxyapatite (Ca2La 8Si6O26 and NaNd9Si 6O26) precipitated in glasses with additions of mixed rare earths. The liquidus temperature (TL) of the glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% La2O3 were 800°C, 959°C and 986°C, respectively; while TL was 825°C, 1059°C and 1267°C for glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% addition of mixed rare earth oxides. The component coefficients TB2O3, TSiO2, TCaO, and T RE2O3 were also evaluated using a recently published study.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAIP Conference Proceedings
PublisherAmerican Institute of Physics Inc.
Pages175-179
Number of pages5
Volume1584
ISBN (Print)9780735412163
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
EventInternational Nuclear Science, Technology and Engineering Conference 2013: Advancing Nuclear Research and Energy Development, iNuSTEC 2013 - Kuala Lumpur
Duration: 30 Sep 20132 Oct 2013

Other

OtherInternational Nuclear Science, Technology and Engineering Conference 2013: Advancing Nuclear Research and Energy Development, iNuSTEC 2013
CityKuala Lumpur
Period30/9/132/10/13

Fingerprint

rare earth elements
oxides
glass
crystals
spent fuels
nuclear fuels
borosilicate glass
reuse
disposal
liquidus
optical microscopes
immobilization
durability
x ray diffraction
electron microscopes
crystallization
salts
heat
scanning
temperature

Keywords

  • borosilicate glass
  • crystallization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Mohd Fadzil, S., Hrma, P., Crum, J., Kok Siong, K. K. S., Ngatiman, M. F., & Said, R. M. (2014). The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1584, pp. 175-179). American Institute of Physics Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4866127

The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides. / Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani; Hrma, Pavel; Crum, Jarrod; Kok Siong, Khoo Kok Siong; Ngatiman, Mohammad Fadzlee; Said, Riduan Mt.

AIP Conference Proceedings. Vol. 1584 American Institute of Physics Inc., 2014. p. 175-179.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Mohd Fadzil, S, Hrma, P, Crum, J, Kok Siong, KKS, Ngatiman, MF & Said, RM 2014, The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides. in AIP Conference Proceedings. vol. 1584, American Institute of Physics Inc., pp. 175-179, International Nuclear Science, Technology and Engineering Conference 2013: Advancing Nuclear Research and Energy Development, iNuSTEC 2013, Kuala Lumpur, 30/9/13. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4866127
Mohd Fadzil S, Hrma P, Crum J, Kok Siong KKS, Ngatiman MF, Said RM. The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides. In AIP Conference Proceedings. Vol. 1584. American Institute of Physics Inc. 2014. p. 175-179 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4866127
Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani ; Hrma, Pavel ; Crum, Jarrod ; Kok Siong, Khoo Kok Siong ; Ngatiman, Mohammad Fadzlee ; Said, Riduan Mt. / The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides. AIP Conference Proceedings. Vol. 1584 American Institute of Physics Inc., 2014. pp. 175-179
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