The exposure of children to PM2.5 and dust in indoor and outdoor school classrooms in Kuala Lumpur City Centre

Murnira Othman, Mohd Talib Latif, Yutaka Matsumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

It is important to assess indoor air quality in school classrooms where the air quality may significantly influence school children's health and performance. This study aims to determine the concentrations of PM2.5 and dust chemical compositions in indoor and outdoor school classroom located in Kuala Lumpur City Centre. The PM2.5 concentration was measured from 19th September 2017–16th February 2018 using an optical PM2.5 sensor. Indoor and outdoor dust was also collected from the school classrooms and ion and trace metal concentrations were analysed using ion chromatography (IC) and inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) respectively. This study showed that the average indoor and outdoor 24 h PM2.5 was 11.2 ± 0.45 µg m−3 and 11.4 ± 0.44 µg m−3 respectively. The 8 h PM2.5 concentration ranged between 3.2 and 28 µg m−3 for indoor and 3.2 and 19 µg m−3 for outdoor classrooms. The highest ion concentration in indoor dust was Ca2+ with an average concentration of 38.5 ± 35.0 µg g−1 while for outdoor dust SO4 2- recorded the highest ion concentration with an average concentration of 30.6 ± 9.37 µg g−1. Dominant trace metals in both indoor and outdoor dust were Al, Fe and Zn. Principle component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) demonstrated that the major source of indoor dust was road dust (69%), while soil dominated the outdoor dust (74%). Health risk assessment showed that the hazard quotient (HQ) value for non-carcinogenic trace metals was < 1 while the total cancer risk (CR) value for carcinogenic elements was below the acceptable limit for both indoor and outdoor dust through dermal and inhalation pathways, but not the ingestion pathway. This study suggests indoor contributions of PM2.5 concentrations are due to the activities of the school children while the compositions of indoor and outdoor dust are greatly influenced by the soil/earth source plus industrial and traffic contribution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)739-749
Number of pages11
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Volume170
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2019

Fingerprint

Dust
Ions
Metals
Air quality
Soil
Indoor Air Pollution
Soils
Ion chromatography
School Health Services
Health risks
Optical sensors
Chemical analysis
Linear regression
Risk assessment
Inhalation
Mass spectrometry
Chromatography
Linear Models
Mass Spectrometry
Hazards

Keywords

  • Health risk assessment
  • Indoor and outdoor dust
  • PM
  • School environment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

The exposure of children to PM2.5 and dust in indoor and outdoor school classrooms in Kuala Lumpur City Centre. / Othman, Murnira; Latif, Mohd Talib; Matsumi, Yutaka.

In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 170, 15.04.2019, p. 739-749.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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