The effects of research octane number and fuel systems on the performance and emissions of a spark ignition engine

A study on Saudi Arabian RON91 and RON95 with port injection and direct injection systems

Saud Binjuwair, Taib Iskandar Mohamad, Ahmed Almaleki, Abdullah Alkudsi, Ibrahim Alshunaifi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    10 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    This research aims to experimentally analyze the performance and emissions of a single cylinder, four-stroke spark ignition (SI) engine fuelled by two grades of gasoline used in Saudi Arabia, RON91 and RON95 while operating with two fuel delivery systems; port injection (PI) and direct injection (DI). The experiments were conducted on a single cylinder research engine with pent-roof type cylinder head that can be interchangeably operated with either port injection or direct injection. Brake power, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust emissions were measured at different engine speeds, loads and fixed compression ratio of 10:1. Cylinder pressure, mass burnt fraction and rate of heat release were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the brake power of the engine is higher with RON91 which is mainly due to higher heating value. The BSFC decreases with increasing in engine load and it increases with increasing engine speed. However, there are no noticeable differences between two tested gasoline fuels in the BSFC except at high speed and load, where BSFC of RON91 is higher than RON95. Combustion analysis showed a mixed response to different RON and fuel systems. Generally, combustion of RON95 is faster than RON91 in both PI and DI systems. In DI system, RON95 showed longer combustion duration at low speed and load. The concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO<inf>X</inf>), carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions in the exhaust system were measured. It is observed that NO<inf>X</inf> emissions of RON91 are higher than RON95 in most cases except at high engine speed with DI system. It is also detected that CO emissions of RON91 are higher than RON95 in both injection systems at higher load. It is also noticed that RON91 system has higher THC emissions.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)351-360
    Number of pages10
    JournalFuel
    Volume158
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2015

    Fingerprint

    Numbering systems
    Antiknock rating
    Fuel systems
    Direct injection
    Internal combustion engines
    Brakes
    Engines
    Fuel consumption
    Engine cylinders
    Nitrogen Oxides
    Nitrogen oxides
    Carbon Monoxide
    Hydrocarbons
    Carbon monoxide
    Gasoline
    Compression ratio (machinery)
    Cylinder heads
    Roofs
    Heating

    Keywords

    • Brake performance
    • Combustion
    • Direct injection
    • Emissions
    • Port fuel injection
    • RON

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Fuel Technology
    • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
    • Chemical Engineering(all)
    • Organic Chemistry

    Cite this

    The effects of research octane number and fuel systems on the performance and emissions of a spark ignition engine : A study on Saudi Arabian RON91 and RON95 with port injection and direct injection systems. / Binjuwair, Saud; Mohamad, Taib Iskandar; Almaleki, Ahmed; Alkudsi, Abdullah; Alshunaifi, Ibrahim.

    In: Fuel, Vol. 158, 10.06.2015, p. 351-360.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Binjuwair, Saud ; Mohamad, Taib Iskandar ; Almaleki, Ahmed ; Alkudsi, Abdullah ; Alshunaifi, Ibrahim. / The effects of research octane number and fuel systems on the performance and emissions of a spark ignition engine : A study on Saudi Arabian RON91 and RON95 with port injection and direct injection systems. In: Fuel. 2015 ; Vol. 158. pp. 351-360.
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    abstract = "This research aims to experimentally analyze the performance and emissions of a single cylinder, four-stroke spark ignition (SI) engine fuelled by two grades of gasoline used in Saudi Arabia, RON91 and RON95 while operating with two fuel delivery systems; port injection (PI) and direct injection (DI). The experiments were conducted on a single cylinder research engine with pent-roof type cylinder head that can be interchangeably operated with either port injection or direct injection. Brake power, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust emissions were measured at different engine speeds, loads and fixed compression ratio of 10:1. Cylinder pressure, mass burnt fraction and rate of heat release were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the brake power of the engine is higher with RON91 which is mainly due to higher heating value. The BSFC decreases with increasing in engine load and it increases with increasing engine speed. However, there are no noticeable differences between two tested gasoline fuels in the BSFC except at high speed and load, where BSFC of RON91 is higher than RON95. Combustion analysis showed a mixed response to different RON and fuel systems. Generally, combustion of RON95 is faster than RON91 in both PI and DI systems. In DI system, RON95 showed longer combustion duration at low speed and load. The concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions in the exhaust system were measured. It is observed that NOX emissions of RON91 are higher than RON95 in most cases except at high engine speed with DI system. It is also detected that CO emissions of RON91 are higher than RON95 in both injection systems at higher load. It is also noticed that RON91 system has higher THC emissions.",
    keywords = "Brake performance, Combustion, Direct injection, Emissions, Port fuel injection, RON",
    author = "Saud Binjuwair and Mohamad, {Taib Iskandar} and Ahmed Almaleki and Abdullah Alkudsi and Ibrahim Alshunaifi",
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    AU - Binjuwair, Saud

    AU - Mohamad, Taib Iskandar

    AU - Almaleki, Ahmed

    AU - Alkudsi, Abdullah

    AU - Alshunaifi, Ibrahim

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    N2 - This research aims to experimentally analyze the performance and emissions of a single cylinder, four-stroke spark ignition (SI) engine fuelled by two grades of gasoline used in Saudi Arabia, RON91 and RON95 while operating with two fuel delivery systems; port injection (PI) and direct injection (DI). The experiments were conducted on a single cylinder research engine with pent-roof type cylinder head that can be interchangeably operated with either port injection or direct injection. Brake power, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust emissions were measured at different engine speeds, loads and fixed compression ratio of 10:1. Cylinder pressure, mass burnt fraction and rate of heat release were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the brake power of the engine is higher with RON91 which is mainly due to higher heating value. The BSFC decreases with increasing in engine load and it increases with increasing engine speed. However, there are no noticeable differences between two tested gasoline fuels in the BSFC except at high speed and load, where BSFC of RON91 is higher than RON95. Combustion analysis showed a mixed response to different RON and fuel systems. Generally, combustion of RON95 is faster than RON91 in both PI and DI systems. In DI system, RON95 showed longer combustion duration at low speed and load. The concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions in the exhaust system were measured. It is observed that NOX emissions of RON91 are higher than RON95 in most cases except at high engine speed with DI system. It is also detected that CO emissions of RON91 are higher than RON95 in both injection systems at higher load. It is also noticed that RON91 system has higher THC emissions.

    AB - This research aims to experimentally analyze the performance and emissions of a single cylinder, four-stroke spark ignition (SI) engine fuelled by two grades of gasoline used in Saudi Arabia, RON91 and RON95 while operating with two fuel delivery systems; port injection (PI) and direct injection (DI). The experiments were conducted on a single cylinder research engine with pent-roof type cylinder head that can be interchangeably operated with either port injection or direct injection. Brake power, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust emissions were measured at different engine speeds, loads and fixed compression ratio of 10:1. Cylinder pressure, mass burnt fraction and rate of heat release were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the brake power of the engine is higher with RON91 which is mainly due to higher heating value. The BSFC decreases with increasing in engine load and it increases with increasing engine speed. However, there are no noticeable differences between two tested gasoline fuels in the BSFC except at high speed and load, where BSFC of RON91 is higher than RON95. Combustion analysis showed a mixed response to different RON and fuel systems. Generally, combustion of RON95 is faster than RON91 in both PI and DI systems. In DI system, RON95 showed longer combustion duration at low speed and load. The concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions in the exhaust system were measured. It is observed that NOX emissions of RON91 are higher than RON95 in most cases except at high engine speed with DI system. It is also detected that CO emissions of RON91 are higher than RON95 in both injection systems at higher load. It is also noticed that RON91 system has higher THC emissions.

    KW - Brake performance

    KW - Combustion

    KW - Direct injection

    KW - Emissions

    KW - Port fuel injection

    KW - RON

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