The effects of annatto tocotrienol on bone biomechanical strength and bone calcium content in an animal model of osteoporosis due to testosterone deficiency

Chin Kok Yong, Dhivakaran Gengatharan, Fadlin Sakina Mohd Nasru, Rehan Amalia Khairussam, Sherlyn Lai Hui Ern, Siti Aina Wahidah Aminuddin, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Osteoporosis reduces the skeletal strength and increases the risk for fracture. It is an underdiagnosed disease in men. Annatto tocotrienol has been shown to improve bone structural indices and increase expression of bone formation genes in orchidectomized rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on biomechanical strength and calcium content of the bone in orchidectomized rats. Thirty three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups. The baseline control (BC) group was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The sham-operated group (SHAM) received olive oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol) orally daily and peanut oil (the vehicle of testosterone) intramuscularly weekly. The remaining rats were orchidectomized and treated with three different regimens, i.e., (1) daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (2) daily oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (3) daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular testosterone enanthate injection at 7 mg/kg. Blood, femur and tibia of the rats were harvested at the end of the two-month treatment period for the evaluation of serum total calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, bone biomechanical strength test and bone calcium content. Annatto-tocotrienol treatment improved serum calcium level and tibial calcium content (p < 0.05) but it did not affect femoral biomechanical strength (p > 0.05). In conclusion, annatto-tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg augments bone calcium level by preventing calcium mobilization into the circulation. A longer treatment period is needed for annatto tocotrienol to exert its effects on bone strength.

Original languageEnglish
Article number808
JournalNutrients
Volume8
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2016

Fingerprint

Tocotrienols
Bixa orellana
bone strength
tocotrienols
osteoporosis
Osteoporosis
testosterone
Testosterone
Animal Models
animal models
bones
Calcium
calcium
Bone and Bones
peanut oil
olive oil
rats
mouth
injection
blood serum

Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Calcium
  • Orchidectomy
  • Phosphate
  • Vitamin E

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

Cite this

The effects of annatto tocotrienol on bone biomechanical strength and bone calcium content in an animal model of osteoporosis due to testosterone deficiency. / Kok Yong, Chin; Gengatharan, Dhivakaran; Nasru, Fadlin Sakina Mohd; Khairussam, Rehan Amalia; Ern, Sherlyn Lai Hui; Aminuddin, Siti Aina Wahidah; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 8, No. 12, 808, 14.12.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kok Yong, Chin ; Gengatharan, Dhivakaran ; Nasru, Fadlin Sakina Mohd ; Khairussam, Rehan Amalia ; Ern, Sherlyn Lai Hui ; Aminuddin, Siti Aina Wahidah ; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana. / The effects of annatto tocotrienol on bone biomechanical strength and bone calcium content in an animal model of osteoporosis due to testosterone deficiency. In: Nutrients. 2016 ; Vol. 8, No. 12.
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AU - Khairussam, Rehan Amalia

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AU - Aminuddin, Siti Aina Wahidah

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AB - Osteoporosis reduces the skeletal strength and increases the risk for fracture. It is an underdiagnosed disease in men. Annatto tocotrienol has been shown to improve bone structural indices and increase expression of bone formation genes in orchidectomized rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on biomechanical strength and calcium content of the bone in orchidectomized rats. Thirty three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups. The baseline control (BC) group was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The sham-operated group (SHAM) received olive oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol) orally daily and peanut oil (the vehicle of testosterone) intramuscularly weekly. The remaining rats were orchidectomized and treated with three different regimens, i.e., (1) daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (2) daily oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (3) daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular testosterone enanthate injection at 7 mg/kg. Blood, femur and tibia of the rats were harvested at the end of the two-month treatment period for the evaluation of serum total calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, bone biomechanical strength test and bone calcium content. Annatto-tocotrienol treatment improved serum calcium level and tibial calcium content (p < 0.05) but it did not affect femoral biomechanical strength (p > 0.05). In conclusion, annatto-tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg augments bone calcium level by preventing calcium mobilization into the circulation. A longer treatment period is needed for annatto tocotrienol to exert its effects on bone strength.

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