The effect of smartphone's radiation frequency and exposure duration on nadph oxidase 5 (nox5) level in sperm parameters

Norazurashima Jamaludin, Syawal Shafie Abdul Razak, Jaffar Farah Hanan Fathihah, Khairul Osman, Siti Fatimah Ibrahim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Health hazard through smart phone radiation has been associated with male infertility. The suspected prime mediator is the NOX5 enzyme. When activated, the additional pathway for free radical production will damage sperm's DNA. However, conclusive evidence is still lacking. Thus, this study was conducted to comprehend the detrimental effect of the radiation towards sperm parameters by using rat as a model. Parameters measured include sperm concentration, viability, DNA damage status and NOX5 level on sperm. This study consisted of two phases. The first phase was conducted to determine the optimal radiation frequency emitted from the smart phone. The radiation frequencies that were evaluated were 0 MHz (control), 4200 MHz without multiple connection mode (minimum frequency) and 9700 MHZ with multiple connection modes (maximum frequency). Each exposure setting represented one group. Each group consists of eight rats, which received exposure for 6 h/day for two consecutive weeks. All parameters measured showed significant differences. Optimum frequency for significant changes to sperm parameters were identified as the minimum frequency. Second part of the research involved the determination of optimum exposure duration. The optimal frequency obtained was used in combination with exposure duration of 0 h (control), 2, 4 and 6 h. Each group had 8 rats and exposure was conducted for 2 weeks. The results showed a significant difference for all parameters following 4 h of exposure. Following this, evaluation of DNA damage status through NOX5 activity was done by using the optimum setting where 0 MHz/0 h as a control and 4200 MHz/4 h per day for up to 2 weeks. The results showed significant differences of NOX5 fluorescent intensity between the two groups. In conclusion, although smart phone emitted low radiation, it can decrease sperm concentration, viability and increase DNA damage through ROS production. NOX5 pathway has been proven to be the likely pathway of ROS induced RF-EMW.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1597-1602
Number of pages6
JournalSains Malaysiana
Volume46
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017

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exposure duration
spermatozoa
DNA damage
sperm concentration
rats
viability
health hazards
male fertility
DNA
enzymes

Keywords

  • DNA Damage
  • Nox5
  • Smart Phone
  • Sperm Concentration
  • Viability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

The effect of smartphone's radiation frequency and exposure duration on nadph oxidase 5 (nox5) level in sperm parameters. / Jamaludin, Norazurashima; Razak, Syawal Shafie Abdul; Farah Hanan Fathihah, Jaffar; Osman, Khairul; Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah.

In: Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 46, No. 9, 01.09.2017, p. 1597-1602.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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