The development of pondok and madrasah in Kedah, 1909-1941

Farid Mat Zain, Ibrahim Abu Bakar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Kedah is a state in the Federation of Malaysia formed in 1963. Between 1909 and 1941, Kedah was under British rule since the Federated and Unfederated Malay States in Malaya willingly or unwillingly came under British rule. Through the Anglo-Siam Treaty of 1909, Kedah was placed under British rule. This paper examines the development of Muslim religious educational institutions known as pondok and madrasah in Kedah from the year of signing the Anglo-Siam Treaty until the Japanese armies invaded and occupied Malaya in 1941. Under British rule, Islamic religious matters and Malay custom were under the jurisdiction of the Malay ruler of Kedah. The British ruled Kedah through the British Resident who advised the Kedah ruler in matters related to state administration, finance and security. The British educational policies enabled the Malays, whose religion had always been Islam, to establish and manage the pondok and madrasah in Kedah to teach and spread Islamic teachings to themselves and their children. Library research methods are used in this paper. This paper assumes that the development of pondok and madrasah in Kedah in those years was a response to British rule.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-279
Number of pages5
JournalAdvances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Volume6
Issue number3 SPECL.ISSUE 2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012

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Malaya
treaties
International cooperation
Malaysia
International Cooperation
educational policy
Islam
Thailand
educational institutions
Muslims
religion
finance
Finance
research methods
Teaching
Religion
Libraries
Research

Keywords

  • Kedah
  • Madrasah
  • Pondok
  • Religious education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

The development of pondok and madrasah in Kedah, 1909-1941. / Mat Zain, Farid; Bakar, Ibrahim Abu.

In: Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 3 SPECL.ISSUE 2, 01.2012, p. 275-279.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mat Zain, Farid ; Bakar, Ibrahim Abu. / The development of pondok and madrasah in Kedah, 1909-1941. In: Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. 2012 ; Vol. 6, No. 3 SPECL.ISSUE 2. pp. 275-279.
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