### Abstract

J. C. Maxwell developed his kinetic theory of gases in 1859. Maxwell determined the distribution of velocities among the molecules of a gas. His finding was later generalized in 1871 by Ludwig Boltzmann to express the distribution of energy levels among the molecules. This paper describes the critical observation of probability comparison of particles displacement in each energy level and mean energy from each particles. The initial conditions is the system consists of 4000 particles where 2000 particles at the first energy level, 1700 particles at the second energy level, 300 particles at the third energy level. Each energy level has the same intrinsic probability. The energy at the first level ( _{1}), second ( _{2}) and thirds ( _{3}) levels are 0 eV, 1 eV, and 2eV, respectively. The probability comparison when three particles which initially occupied the second energy level where two of the particles being excited to the first energy level and the single one fell to the third energy level is 50% from the initial probability distribution.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 869-877 |

Number of pages | 9 |

Journal | Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics |

Volume | 6 |

Issue number | 17-20 |

Publication status | Published - 2012 |

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### Keywords

- Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
- Particles displacement
- Probability distribution

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Mathematical Physics

### Cite this

*Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics*,

*6*(17-20), 869-877.

**The critical observation of possibility analysis of particles in the Maxwell - Boltzmann distribution law.** / Ramza, Harry; Azizan, Luqman Al Hakim; Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Ab Rahman, Mohd Syuhaimi.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics*, vol. 6, no. 17-20, pp. 869-877.

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The critical observation of possibility analysis of particles in the Maxwell - Boltzmann distribution law

AU - Ramza, Harry

AU - Azizan, Luqman Al Hakim

AU - Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba

AU - Ab Rahman, Mohd Syuhaimi

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - J. C. Maxwell developed his kinetic theory of gases in 1859. Maxwell determined the distribution of velocities among the molecules of a gas. His finding was later generalized in 1871 by Ludwig Boltzmann to express the distribution of energy levels among the molecules. This paper describes the critical observation of probability comparison of particles displacement in each energy level and mean energy from each particles. The initial conditions is the system consists of 4000 particles where 2000 particles at the first energy level, 1700 particles at the second energy level, 300 particles at the third energy level. Each energy level has the same intrinsic probability. The energy at the first level ( 1), second ( 2) and thirds ( 3) levels are 0 eV, 1 eV, and 2eV, respectively. The probability comparison when three particles which initially occupied the second energy level where two of the particles being excited to the first energy level and the single one fell to the third energy level is 50% from the initial probability distribution.

AB - J. C. Maxwell developed his kinetic theory of gases in 1859. Maxwell determined the distribution of velocities among the molecules of a gas. His finding was later generalized in 1871 by Ludwig Boltzmann to express the distribution of energy levels among the molecules. This paper describes the critical observation of probability comparison of particles displacement in each energy level and mean energy from each particles. The initial conditions is the system consists of 4000 particles where 2000 particles at the first energy level, 1700 particles at the second energy level, 300 particles at the third energy level. Each energy level has the same intrinsic probability. The energy at the first level ( 1), second ( 2) and thirds ( 3) levels are 0 eV, 1 eV, and 2eV, respectively. The probability comparison when three particles which initially occupied the second energy level where two of the particles being excited to the first energy level and the single one fell to the third energy level is 50% from the initial probability distribution.

KW - Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

KW - Particles displacement

KW - Probability distribution

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84865833709&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84865833709&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - 869

EP - 877

JO - Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics

JF - Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics

SN - 1313-1311

IS - 17-20

ER -