The Cost and Quality of Life of Malaysian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Anemia

Soraya Azmi, Adrian Goh, Noor Azimah Muhammad, Hizlinda Tohid, Mohd Radzniwan A. Rashid

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Abstract

Background Anemia is common among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and an independent risk factor for renal disease progression. Health economic evidence is important in Malaysia and yet cost and quality-of-life (QOL) data are scarce. Objectives To investigate prevalence, factors associated with anemia, and cost and QOL among T2DM patients with CKD. Here, we present the estimated 1-year cost and QOL related to anemia in this group. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study was performed at 20 government clinics. Treatment cost was calculated on the basis of resource utilization ascertained through data extracted from medical records and patient recall. QOL was elicited using the short form 36 health survey version 2 questionnaire. Propensity score matching was performed and costs and QOL were analyzed by anemia status and CKD stage. Results Data for 816 patients were obtained. The propensity score matching enabled a comparison of 257 patients with and without anemia. Annual treatment costs were significantly higher for patients with anemia (Ringgit Malaysia [RM] 4219 [US $983] vs. RM2705 [US $630]; P = 0.01). QOL scores were lower for patients with anemia but not statistically significant (physical component summary score: 44.8 vs. 46.2; P = 0.052; mental component summary score: 51.3 vs. 51.7; P = 0.562). Costs were higher and QOL lower among CKD stage 5 patients. Conclusions This study was the first to examine anemia in this group of patients. Costs were significantly higher among anemic patients compared with nonanemic patients; patients with higher CKD stage 5 fared less well than did those in lower stages. This information suggests the need to increase detection, prevention, and early treatment of anemia when managing T2DM patients, particularly those with CKD.

LanguageEnglish
Pages42-49
Number of pages8
JournalValue in Health Regional Issues
Volume15
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2018

Fingerprint

Quality of life
Kidney
Anemia
Costs
Type 2 diabetes
Diabetes mellitus
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Quality of Life
Costs and Cost Analysis
Propensity score matching
Malaysia
Propensity Score
Health Care Costs
Factors
Observational study
Resource utilization
Progression
Health economics
Health surveys

Keywords

  • anemia
  • chronic kidney disease
  • cost
  • quality of life
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)
  • Health Policy

Cite this

The Cost and Quality of Life of Malaysian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Anemia. / Azmi, Soraya; Goh, Adrian; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Tohid, Hizlinda; Rashid, Mohd Radzniwan A.

In: Value in Health Regional Issues, Vol. 15, 01.05.2018, p. 42-49.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

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abstract = "Background Anemia is common among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and an independent risk factor for renal disease progression. Health economic evidence is important in Malaysia and yet cost and quality-of-life (QOL) data are scarce. Objectives To investigate prevalence, factors associated with anemia, and cost and QOL among T2DM patients with CKD. Here, we present the estimated 1-year cost and QOL related to anemia in this group. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study was performed at 20 government clinics. Treatment cost was calculated on the basis of resource utilization ascertained through data extracted from medical records and patient recall. QOL was elicited using the short form 36 health survey version 2 questionnaire. Propensity score matching was performed and costs and QOL were analyzed by anemia status and CKD stage. Results Data for 816 patients were obtained. The propensity score matching enabled a comparison of 257 patients with and without anemia. Annual treatment costs were significantly higher for patients with anemia (Ringgit Malaysia [RM] 4219 [US $983] vs. RM2705 [US $630]; P = 0.01). QOL scores were lower for patients with anemia but not statistically significant (physical component summary score: 44.8 vs. 46.2; P = 0.052; mental component summary score: 51.3 vs. 51.7; P = 0.562). Costs were higher and QOL lower among CKD stage 5 patients. Conclusions This study was the first to examine anemia in this group of patients. Costs were significantly higher among anemic patients compared with nonanemic patients; patients with higher CKD stage 5 fared less well than did those in lower stages. This information suggests the need to increase detection, prevention, and early treatment of anemia when managing T2DM patients, particularly those with CKD.",
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N2 - Background Anemia is common among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and an independent risk factor for renal disease progression. Health economic evidence is important in Malaysia and yet cost and quality-of-life (QOL) data are scarce. Objectives To investigate prevalence, factors associated with anemia, and cost and QOL among T2DM patients with CKD. Here, we present the estimated 1-year cost and QOL related to anemia in this group. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study was performed at 20 government clinics. Treatment cost was calculated on the basis of resource utilization ascertained through data extracted from medical records and patient recall. QOL was elicited using the short form 36 health survey version 2 questionnaire. Propensity score matching was performed and costs and QOL were analyzed by anemia status and CKD stage. Results Data for 816 patients were obtained. The propensity score matching enabled a comparison of 257 patients with and without anemia. Annual treatment costs were significantly higher for patients with anemia (Ringgit Malaysia [RM] 4219 [US $983] vs. RM2705 [US $630]; P = 0.01). QOL scores were lower for patients with anemia but not statistically significant (physical component summary score: 44.8 vs. 46.2; P = 0.052; mental component summary score: 51.3 vs. 51.7; P = 0.562). Costs were higher and QOL lower among CKD stage 5 patients. Conclusions This study was the first to examine anemia in this group of patients. Costs were significantly higher among anemic patients compared with nonanemic patients; patients with higher CKD stage 5 fared less well than did those in lower stages. This information suggests the need to increase detection, prevention, and early treatment of anemia when managing T2DM patients, particularly those with CKD.

AB - Background Anemia is common among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and an independent risk factor for renal disease progression. Health economic evidence is important in Malaysia and yet cost and quality-of-life (QOL) data are scarce. Objectives To investigate prevalence, factors associated with anemia, and cost and QOL among T2DM patients with CKD. Here, we present the estimated 1-year cost and QOL related to anemia in this group. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study was performed at 20 government clinics. Treatment cost was calculated on the basis of resource utilization ascertained through data extracted from medical records and patient recall. QOL was elicited using the short form 36 health survey version 2 questionnaire. Propensity score matching was performed and costs and QOL were analyzed by anemia status and CKD stage. Results Data for 816 patients were obtained. The propensity score matching enabled a comparison of 257 patients with and without anemia. Annual treatment costs were significantly higher for patients with anemia (Ringgit Malaysia [RM] 4219 [US $983] vs. RM2705 [US $630]; P = 0.01). QOL scores were lower for patients with anemia but not statistically significant (physical component summary score: 44.8 vs. 46.2; P = 0.052; mental component summary score: 51.3 vs. 51.7; P = 0.562). Costs were higher and QOL lower among CKD stage 5 patients. Conclusions This study was the first to examine anemia in this group of patients. Costs were significantly higher among anemic patients compared with nonanemic patients; patients with higher CKD stage 5 fared less well than did those in lower stages. This information suggests the need to increase detection, prevention, and early treatment of anemia when managing T2DM patients, particularly those with CKD.

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