The correlation between structural and reductionkinetics of carbon from agricultural waste withhematite

Nur Hazira Najmi, Nur Farhana M. Yunos, Norinsan Kamil Othman, Muhammad Asri Idris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Char conversion by pyrolysis is a promising technique for the production of renewable car-bon source. In this study, char generated from agricultural waste (i.e. palm shell) was studiedas reductant instead of fossil fuels. The palm shell char was prepared by chemical activationusing orthophosphoric acid and pyrolysis under an inert atmosphere at 723 K. The reductionexperiment was conducted to understand the reduction of iron oxide with palm shell charwhere the associated reaction kinetics was elucidated. The reduction conditions were keptconstant for 30 min, C/O ratio was 0.6 and particle size <63 μm. The reduction experimentswere conducted in the temperature range 1523-1823 K in a horizontal tube furnace underargon gas. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed to determine the structure ofreduced samples. The results showed that the reduction temperature was responsible forstructural evolutions during reduction. The iron oxide was completely reduced to metalliciron with palm shell char at 1823 K and this temperature was considered optimum for thedesired conversion. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX)confirmed the formation of metallic iron after the reduction reaction. The activation energyof hematite reduction by palm shell char was 117 kJ mol-1 and this indicated the reductionoccurs in a rapid manner. The palm shell char is highly reactive as reductant and this cor-related well with the reduction kinetics at high temperature. This study provided insight onthe ideal approach of agricultural waste as a renewable carbon reductant for steelmakingapplications.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Agricultural wastes
Carbon
Reducing Agents
Iron oxides
Pyrolysis
Orthophosphoric acid
Gas furnaces
Temperature
Hematite
Fossil fuels
Reaction kinetics
Railroad cars
Electron microscopes
Iron
Chemical activation
Particle size
Scanning
X ray diffraction
Kinetics

Keywords

  • Agricultural waste
  • Palm shell char
  • Reduction kinetics
  • Sustainable ironmaking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys

Cite this

The correlation between structural and reductionkinetics of carbon from agricultural waste withhematite. / Najmi, Nur Hazira; Yunos, Nur Farhana M.; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Idris, Muhammad Asri.

In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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