Ternary phase behavior of water microemulsified diesel-palm biodiesel

Nurul Atiqah Izzati Md Ishak, Ismail Ab Raman, Mohd. Ambar Yarmo, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper aims to develop a new microemulsions system comprising diesel and palm oil methyl ester (PME) that have the potential to be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. The water-in-diesel-biodiesel microemulsions were prepared by applying PME mixed with diesel, non-ionic surfactants, co-surfactants and water to make the water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion system. This microemulsified fuel was achieved through low-energy microemulsification by using the constant composition method. The diesel used was mixed with four different concentrations of PME, i.e., 10% (w/w) (B10), 20% (w/w) (B20), 30% (w/w) (B30) and neat diesel (B0). The amount of water was fixed at 20% (w/w). The phase behavior of the water/mixed non-ionic surfactant/diesel-PME system were studied by constructing pseudoternary phase diagrams with the goal of formulating optimized systems. The results showed that the microemulsions were formed and stabilized with a mixture of non-ionic surfactants at a weight ratio of 80:20 at 20% (w/w), and with mixed co-surfactants at a weight ratio of 25:75, 20:80 and 10:90 for B0, B10, B20 and B30 respectively. The particle size, kinematic viscosity at 40°C, refractive index, density, heating value, cloud point, pour point and flash point of the selected water-in-diesel microemulsion were 19.40 nm (polydispersity of 0.012), 12.86 mm<sup>2</sup>/s, 1.435, 0.8913 g/mL, 31.87 MJ/kg, 7.15°C, 10.5°C and 46.5°C respectively. The corresponding values of the water-in-diesel-PME selected were 20.72 nm to 23.74 nm, 13.02 mm<sup>2</sup>/s to 13.29 mm<sup>2</sup>/s, 1.442, 0.8939 g/mL to 0.8990 g/mL, 31.45 MJ/kg to 27.34 MJ/kg, 7.2°C to 6.8°C, 8.5°C to 1.5°C and 47.5°C to 52.0°C. These preliminary findings were further studied as potential fuels for diesel engines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162-169
Number of pages8
JournalFrontiers in Energy
Volume9
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2015

Fingerprint

Phase behavior
Biodiesel
Palm oil
Microemulsions
Esters
Nonionic surfactants
Water
Diesel engines
Surface active agents
Alternative fuels
Polydispersity
Phase diagrams
Refractive index
Particle size
Viscosity
Heating
Chemical analysis

Keywords

  • microemulsion
  • palm methyl ester
  • palm oil biodiesel
  • water microemulsified fuels

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

Cite this

Ternary phase behavior of water microemulsified diesel-palm biodiesel. / Md Ishak, Nurul Atiqah Izzati; Raman, Ismail Ab; Yarmo, Mohd. Ambar; Wan Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal.

In: Frontiers in Energy, Vol. 9, No. 2, 15.04.2015, p. 162-169.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Md Ishak, Nurul Atiqah Izzati ; Raman, Ismail Ab ; Yarmo, Mohd. Ambar ; Wan Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal. / Ternary phase behavior of water microemulsified diesel-palm biodiesel. In: Frontiers in Energy. 2015 ; Vol. 9, No. 2. pp. 162-169.
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