Synthesis of minimal-size ZnO nanoparticles through sol-gel method: Taguchi design optimisation

Ying Tao Chung, Muneer M. Ba-Abbad, Abdul Wahab Mohammad, Nur Hanis Hayati Hairom, Abdelbaki Benamor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Zinc oxide (ZnO) has excellent potential to be used in water and wastewater treatment, either as a photocatalyst or in membrane incorporation. In this work, the synthesis of smaller ZnO NPs through a sol-gel approach was enhanced by applying Taguchi design. Recent work on the synthesis of ZnO NPs was optimised to ensure relatively smaller sized particles were obtained. Several parameters of the synthesis process, such as molar ratio of starting materials, molar concentration and calcination temperature, were selected as they have the dominant effects on the particle size of ZnO NPs. Each of these factors was studied at three levels. Various analyses such as ANOVA, model adequacy check and numerical optimisation were performed to validate the predicted optimal model. As a result, the optimum conditions were estimated at a molar ratio of 50:50, an oxalic acid molar concentration of 0.1. M and a calcination temperature of 400. °C. Experiments were performed to validate the model at the selected conditions and the particle size was around 20. ±. 2. nm according to XRD analysis, which was in good agreement with the predicted size of 19.8. nm. In addition, the actual size of the synthesised NPs was confirmed by TEM analysis, with the average size of 13. ±. 5. nm. Hence, the Taguchi design was an essential tool in the optimisation of ZnO NP synthesis process with fewer experimental runs and relatively low cost approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)780-787
Number of pages8
JournalMaterials and Design
Volume87
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2015

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Zinc Oxide
Zinc oxide
Sol-gel process
Nanoparticles
Calcination
Particle size
Oxalic Acid
Oxalic acid
Photocatalysts
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Water treatment
Wastewater treatment
Sol-gels
Design optimization
Transmission electron microscopy
Membranes
Temperature
Costs
Experiments

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Sol-gel
  • Taguchi
  • ZnO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Synthesis of minimal-size ZnO nanoparticles through sol-gel method : Taguchi design optimisation. / Chung, Ying Tao; Ba-Abbad, Muneer M.; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Hairom, Nur Hanis Hayati; Benamor, Abdelbaki.

In: Materials and Design, Vol. 87, 15.12.2015, p. 780-787.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chung, Ying Tao ; Ba-Abbad, Muneer M. ; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab ; Hairom, Nur Hanis Hayati ; Benamor, Abdelbaki. / Synthesis of minimal-size ZnO nanoparticles through sol-gel method : Taguchi design optimisation. In: Materials and Design. 2015 ; Vol. 87. pp. 780-787.
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