Synthesis of kenaf cellulose carbamate using microwave irradiation for preparation of cellulose membrane

Sinyee Gan, Sarani Zakaria, Chin Hua Chia, Hatika Kaco, Farah Nadia Mohammad Padzil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cellulose carbamate (CCs) was produced from kenaf core pulp (KCP) using microwave reactor-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration and reaction time on the formation of nitrogen content in CCs were investigated. The CCs' solubility in LiOH/urea system was determined and its membranes were characterized. As the urea content and reaction time increased, the nitrogen content form in CCs increased which enhanced the CCs' solubility. The formation of CCs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen content analysis. The CCs' morphology was examined using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cellulose II and crystallinity index of the membranes were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pore size of the membrane displayed upward trend with respect to the urea content observed under Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). This investigation provides a simple and efficient procedure of CCs determination which is useful in producing environmental friendly regenerated CCs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-165
Number of pages6
JournalCarbohydrate Polymers
Volume106
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2014

Fingerprint

Carbamates
Microwave irradiation
Cellulose
Membranes
Urea
Nitrogen
Solubility
Field emission
Pore size
Pulp
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Electron microscopes
Microwaves
Scanning
X ray diffraction
Scanning electron microscopy

Keywords

  • Alkaline aqueous solution
  • Cellulose membrane
  • Nitrogen content
  • Rapid dissolution
  • Urea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics

Cite this

Synthesis of kenaf cellulose carbamate using microwave irradiation for preparation of cellulose membrane. / Gan, Sinyee; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Kaco, Hatika; Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad.

In: Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 106, No. 1, 15.06.2014, p. 160-165.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Cellulose carbamate (CCs) was produced from kenaf core pulp (KCP) using microwave reactor-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration and reaction time on the formation of nitrogen content in CCs were investigated. The CCs' solubility in LiOH/urea system was determined and its membranes were characterized. As the urea content and reaction time increased, the nitrogen content form in CCs increased which enhanced the CCs' solubility. The formation of CCs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen content analysis. The CCs' morphology was examined using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cellulose II and crystallinity index of the membranes were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pore size of the membrane displayed upward trend with respect to the urea content observed under Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). This investigation provides a simple and efficient procedure of CCs determination which is useful in producing environmental friendly regenerated CCs.",
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AU - Zakaria, Sarani

AU - Chia, Chin Hua

AU - Kaco, Hatika

AU - Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad

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N2 - Cellulose carbamate (CCs) was produced from kenaf core pulp (KCP) using microwave reactor-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration and reaction time on the formation of nitrogen content in CCs were investigated. The CCs' solubility in LiOH/urea system was determined and its membranes were characterized. As the urea content and reaction time increased, the nitrogen content form in CCs increased which enhanced the CCs' solubility. The formation of CCs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen content analysis. The CCs' morphology was examined using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cellulose II and crystallinity index of the membranes were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pore size of the membrane displayed upward trend with respect to the urea content observed under Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). This investigation provides a simple and efficient procedure of CCs determination which is useful in producing environmental friendly regenerated CCs.

AB - Cellulose carbamate (CCs) was produced from kenaf core pulp (KCP) using microwave reactor-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration and reaction time on the formation of nitrogen content in CCs were investigated. The CCs' solubility in LiOH/urea system was determined and its membranes were characterized. As the urea content and reaction time increased, the nitrogen content form in CCs increased which enhanced the CCs' solubility. The formation of CCs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen content analysis. The CCs' morphology was examined using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cellulose II and crystallinity index of the membranes were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pore size of the membrane displayed upward trend with respect to the urea content observed under Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). This investigation provides a simple and efficient procedure of CCs determination which is useful in producing environmental friendly regenerated CCs.

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