Synthesis and fabrication of GPS patch antennas by using Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4 thin films

Wan Nasarudin Wan Jalal, Huda Abdullah, Mohd Syafiq Zulfakar, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Sahbudin Shaari, Badariah Bais

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Abstract: Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4-based microwave dielectric ceramics were prepared by sol–gel method. The obtained compounds were characterized and fabricated as GPS patch antennas. The XRD patterns show a three-phase system with a spinel ZnAl2O4, anatase and a rutile (TiO2). The addition of TiO2 increased the crystallite size and grain size, and surface morphology tended to increase the ceramics density (4.61–4.75 g/cm3) and dielectric constant, εr (8.56–13.51). Based on the material investigated and microwave antenna theory, GPS patch antennas were fabricated using Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4 and then measured using a PNA series network analyzer. The surface of the GPS patch antennas and ground plane was coated with 200-nm-thick silver to enhance ohmic contact. The patch antenna sizes decreased as εr increased from 2.88 × 4.37 cm (12.58 cm2) to 3.53 × 2.21 cm (7.80 cm2). Among these antennas, the Zn0.70Ti0.30Al2O4 shows an excellent performance combination between return loss (−28.71 dB), small size (3.53 × 2.21 cm), and wide bandwidth (270 MHz).

    Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology
    DOIs
    Publication statusAccepted/In press - 15 Mar 2015

    Fingerprint

    patch antennas
    Microstrip antennas
    Global positioning system
    Fabrication
    Thin films
    fabrication
    synthesis
    thin films
    antennas
    microwave antennas
    Microwave antennas
    ceramics
    Electric network analyzers
    Antenna grounds
    Ohmic contacts
    Crystallite size
    Silver
    anatase
    rutile
    Titanium dioxide

    Keywords

    • Antenna performance
    • Dielectric constant
    • GPS patch antennas
    • Sol–gel method
    • Thin films

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Chemistry(all)
    • Condensed Matter Physics
    • Biomaterials
    • Ceramics and Composites
    • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
    • Materials Chemistry

    Cite this

    Synthesis and fabrication of GPS patch antennas by using Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4 thin films. / Jalal, Wan Nasarudin Wan; Abdullah, Huda; Zulfakar, Mohd Syafiq; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Shaari, Sahbudin; Bais, Badariah.

    In: Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 15.03.2015.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Jalal, Wan Nasarudin Wan ; Abdullah, Huda ; Zulfakar, Mohd Syafiq ; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul ; Shaari, Sahbudin ; Bais, Badariah. / Synthesis and fabrication of GPS patch antennas by using Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4 thin films. In: Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. 2015.
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    AU - Jalal, Wan Nasarudin Wan

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    AU - Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

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    AB - Abstract: Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4-based microwave dielectric ceramics were prepared by sol–gel method. The obtained compounds were characterized and fabricated as GPS patch antennas. The XRD patterns show a three-phase system with a spinel ZnAl2O4, anatase and a rutile (TiO2). The addition of TiO2 increased the crystallite size and grain size, and surface morphology tended to increase the ceramics density (4.61–4.75 g/cm3) and dielectric constant, εr (8.56–13.51). Based on the material investigated and microwave antenna theory, GPS patch antennas were fabricated using Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4 and then measured using a PNA series network analyzer. The surface of the GPS patch antennas and ground plane was coated with 200-nm-thick silver to enhance ohmic contact. The patch antenna sizes decreased as εr increased from 2.88 × 4.37 cm (12.58 cm2) to 3.53 × 2.21 cm (7.80 cm2). Among these antennas, the Zn0.70Ti0.30Al2O4 shows an excellent performance combination between return loss (−28.71 dB), small size (3.53 × 2.21 cm), and wide bandwidth (270 MHz).Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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