Synthesis and fabrication of GPS patch antennas by using Zn<inf>(1 − x)</inf>Ti<inf> x</inf>Al<inf>2</inf>O<inf>4</inf> thin films

Wan Nasarudin Wan Jalal, Huda Abdullah, Mohd Syafiq Zulfakar, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Sahbudin Shaari, Badariah Bais

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract: Zn<inf>(1 − x)</inf>Ti<inf>x</inf>Al<inf>2</inf>O<inf>4</inf>-based microwave dielectric ceramics were prepared by sol–gel method. The obtained compounds were characterized and fabricated as GPS patch antennas. The XRD patterns show a three-phase system with a spinel ZnAl<inf>2</inf>O<inf>4</inf>, anatase and a rutile (TiO<inf>2</inf>). The addition of TiO<inf>2</inf> increased the crystallite size and grain size, and surface morphology tended to increase the ceramics density (4.61–4.75 g/cm<sup>3</sup>) and dielectric constant, ε<inf>r</inf> (8.56–13.51). Based on the material investigated and microwave antenna theory, GPS patch antennas were fabricated using Zn<inf>(1 − x)</inf>Ti<inf>x</inf>Al<inf>2</inf>O<inf>4</inf> and then measured using a PNA series network analyzer. The surface of the GPS patch antennas and ground plane was coated with 200-nm-thick silver to enhance ohmic contact. The patch antenna sizes decreased as ε<inf>r</inf> increased from 2.88 × 4.37 cm (12.58 cm<sup>2</sup>) to 3.53 × 2.21 cm (7.80 cm<sup>2</sup>). Among these antennas, the Zn<inf>0.70</inf>Ti<inf>0.30</inf>Al<inf>2</inf>O<inf>4</inf> shows an excellent performance combination between return loss (−28.71 dB), small size (3.53 × 2.21 cm), and wide bandwidth (270 MHz).

Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-574
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology
Volume74
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015

Fingerprint

patch antennas
Microstrip antennas
Global positioning system
Fabrication
Thin films
fabrication
synthesis
thin films
antennas
microwave antennas
Microwave antennas
ceramics
Electric network analyzers
Antenna grounds
Ohmic contacts
Crystallite size
Silver
anatase
rutile
Titanium dioxide

Keywords

  • Antenna performance
  • Dielectric constant
  • GPS patch antennas
  • Sol–gel method
  • Thin films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Biomaterials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Synthesis and fabrication of GPS patch antennas by using Zn<inf>(1 − x)</inf>Ti<inf> x</inf>Al<inf>2</inf>O<inf>4</inf> thin films. / Jalal, Wan Nasarudin Wan; Abdullah, Huda; Zulfakar, Mohd Syafiq; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Shaari, Sahbudin; Bais, Badariah.

In: Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 74, No. 2, 01.05.2015, p. 566-574.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Abstract: Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4-based microwave dielectric ceramics were prepared by sol–gel method. The obtained compounds were characterized and fabricated as GPS patch antennas. The XRD patterns show a three-phase system with a spinel ZnAl2O4, anatase and a rutile (TiO2). The addition of TiO2 increased the crystallite size and grain size, and surface morphology tended to increase the ceramics density (4.61–4.75 g/cm3) and dielectric constant, εr (8.56–13.51). Based on the material investigated and microwave antenna theory, GPS patch antennas were fabricated using Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4 and then measured using a PNA series network analyzer. The surface of the GPS patch antennas and ground plane was coated with 200-nm-thick silver to enhance ohmic contact. The patch antenna sizes decreased as εr increased from 2.88 × 4.37 cm (12.58 cm2) to 3.53 × 2.21 cm (7.80 cm2). Among these antennas, the Zn0.70Ti0.30Al2O4 shows an excellent performance combination between return loss (−28.71 dB), small size (3.53 × 2.21 cm), and wide bandwidth (270 MHz).Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]",
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AU - Jalal, Wan Nasarudin Wan

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AU - Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

AU - Shaari, Sahbudin

AU - Bais, Badariah

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N2 - Abstract: Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4-based microwave dielectric ceramics were prepared by sol–gel method. The obtained compounds were characterized and fabricated as GPS patch antennas. The XRD patterns show a three-phase system with a spinel ZnAl2O4, anatase and a rutile (TiO2). The addition of TiO2 increased the crystallite size and grain size, and surface morphology tended to increase the ceramics density (4.61–4.75 g/cm3) and dielectric constant, εr (8.56–13.51). Based on the material investigated and microwave antenna theory, GPS patch antennas were fabricated using Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4 and then measured using a PNA series network analyzer. The surface of the GPS patch antennas and ground plane was coated with 200-nm-thick silver to enhance ohmic contact. The patch antenna sizes decreased as εr increased from 2.88 × 4.37 cm (12.58 cm2) to 3.53 × 2.21 cm (7.80 cm2). Among these antennas, the Zn0.70Ti0.30Al2O4 shows an excellent performance combination between return loss (−28.71 dB), small size (3.53 × 2.21 cm), and wide bandwidth (270 MHz).Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

AB - Abstract: Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4-based microwave dielectric ceramics were prepared by sol–gel method. The obtained compounds were characterized and fabricated as GPS patch antennas. The XRD patterns show a three-phase system with a spinel ZnAl2O4, anatase and a rutile (TiO2). The addition of TiO2 increased the crystallite size and grain size, and surface morphology tended to increase the ceramics density (4.61–4.75 g/cm3) and dielectric constant, εr (8.56–13.51). Based on the material investigated and microwave antenna theory, GPS patch antennas were fabricated using Zn(1 − x)TixAl2O4 and then measured using a PNA series network analyzer. The surface of the GPS patch antennas and ground plane was coated with 200-nm-thick silver to enhance ohmic contact. The patch antenna sizes decreased as εr increased from 2.88 × 4.37 cm (12.58 cm2) to 3.53 × 2.21 cm (7.80 cm2). Among these antennas, the Zn0.70Ti0.30Al2O4 shows an excellent performance combination between return loss (−28.71 dB), small size (3.53 × 2.21 cm), and wide bandwidth (270 MHz).Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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