Surfactants in the sea surface microlayer, subsurface water and fine marine aerosols in different background coastal areas

Suhana Shaharom, Mohd Talib Latif, Firoz Khan, Siti Norbalqis Mohd Yusof, Nor Azura Sulong, Nurul Bahiyah Abd Wahid, Royston Uning, Suhaimi Suratman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study aims to determine the concentrations of surfactants in the surface microlayer (SML), subsurface water (SSW) and fine mode aerosol (diameter size < 1.5 μm) at different coastal stations in Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of anionic and cationic surfactants were determined through colorimetric methods as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and disulphine blue active substances (DBAS), respectively. Water-soluble ions, for the determination of fine mode aerosol sources, were determined using ion chromatography (IC) for anions (SO4 2−, NO3 , Cl and F) and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+). Principal component analysis (PCA), combined with multiple linear regression (MLR), was used to identify the possible sources of surfactants in fine aerosol. The results showed the concentrations of surfactants as MBAS and DBAS in the SML ranged between 0.23 ± 0.03 and 0.35 ± 0.01 μmol L−1 and between 0.21 ± 0.02 and 0.29 ± 0.01 μmol L−1, respectively. The enrichment factors (Efs) ratios between MBAS and DBAS in the SML and SSW ranged between 1.04 ± 0.01 and 1.32 ± 0.04, respectively. The station that is located near to tourism and industrial activities recorded the highest concentrations of surfactants in SML and SSW. The concentrations of surfactants in fine aerosol ranged between 62.29 and 106.57 pmol m−3. The three possible sources of fine aerosol during the northeast monsoon were aged sea spray/biomass burning (which accounted for 69% of the atmospheric aerosol), nitrate/mineral dust (23%) and sulphate/fresh sea salt (8%). During the southwest monsoon, the three main sources of atmospheric aerosol were biomass burning (71%), secondary inorganic aerosol (23%) and sea spray (6%). This study suggests anthropogenic sources are main contributors to the concentrations of surfactants in SML, SSW and fine aerosols.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 17 Jul 2018

Fingerprint

microlayer
Aerosols
Surface-Active Agents
Oceans and Seas
surfactant
sea surface
Surface active agents
aerosol
Water
Methylene Blue
Atmospheric aerosols
water
Biomass
biomass burning
spray
Ion chromatography
monsoon
Anionic surfactants
Cationic surfactants
Ions

Keywords

  • Anionic composition
  • Fine aerosols
  • PCA-MLR
  • Sea surface microlayer
  • Surfactant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Surfactants in the sea surface microlayer, subsurface water and fine marine aerosols in different background coastal areas. / Shaharom, Suhana; Latif, Mohd Talib; Khan, Firoz; Yusof, Siti Norbalqis Mohd; Sulong, Nor Azura; Wahid, Nurul Bahiyah Abd; Uning, Royston; Suratman, Suhaimi.

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 17.07.2018, p. 1-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shaharom, Suhana ; Latif, Mohd Talib ; Khan, Firoz ; Yusof, Siti Norbalqis Mohd ; Sulong, Nor Azura ; Wahid, Nurul Bahiyah Abd ; Uning, Royston ; Suratman, Suhaimi. / Surfactants in the sea surface microlayer, subsurface water and fine marine aerosols in different background coastal areas. In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018 ; pp. 1-16.
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AU - Sulong, Nor Azura

AU - Wahid, Nurul Bahiyah Abd

AU - Uning, Royston

AU - Suratman, Suhaimi

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N2 - This study aims to determine the concentrations of surfactants in the surface microlayer (SML), subsurface water (SSW) and fine mode aerosol (diameter size < 1.5 μm) at different coastal stations in Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of anionic and cationic surfactants were determined through colorimetric methods as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and disulphine blue active substances (DBAS), respectively. Water-soluble ions, for the determination of fine mode aerosol sources, were determined using ion chromatography (IC) for anions (SO4 2−, NO3 −, Cl− and F−) and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+). Principal component analysis (PCA), combined with multiple linear regression (MLR), was used to identify the possible sources of surfactants in fine aerosol. The results showed the concentrations of surfactants as MBAS and DBAS in the SML ranged between 0.23 ± 0.03 and 0.35 ± 0.01 μmol L−1 and between 0.21 ± 0.02 and 0.29 ± 0.01 μmol L−1, respectively. The enrichment factors (Efs) ratios between MBAS and DBAS in the SML and SSW ranged between 1.04 ± 0.01 and 1.32 ± 0.04, respectively. The station that is located near to tourism and industrial activities recorded the highest concentrations of surfactants in SML and SSW. The concentrations of surfactants in fine aerosol ranged between 62.29 and 106.57 pmol m−3. The three possible sources of fine aerosol during the northeast monsoon were aged sea spray/biomass burning (which accounted for 69% of the atmospheric aerosol), nitrate/mineral dust (23%) and sulphate/fresh sea salt (8%). During the southwest monsoon, the three main sources of atmospheric aerosol were biomass burning (71%), secondary inorganic aerosol (23%) and sea spray (6%). This study suggests anthropogenic sources are main contributors to the concentrations of surfactants in SML, SSW and fine aerosols.

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