Surface modification of electroosmotic silicon microchannel using thermal dry oxidation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A simple fabrication method for the surface modification of an electroosmotic silicon microchannel using thermal dry oxidation is presented. The surface modification is done by coating the silicon surface with a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer using a thermal oxidation process. The process aims not only to improve the surface quality of the channel to be suitable for electroosmotic fluid transport but also to reduce the channel width using a simple technique. Initially, the parallel microchannel array with dimensions of 0.5 mm length and a width ranging from 1.8 μm to 2 μm are created using plasma etching on the 2 cm × 2 cm silicon substrate < 100 > . The oxidation of the silicon channel in a thermal chamber is then conducted to create the SiO2 layer. The layer properties and the quality of the surface are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a surface profiler, respectively. The results show that the maximum oxidation growth rate occurs in the first 4 h of oxidation time and the rate decreases over time as the oxide layer becomes thicker. It is also found that the surface roughness is reduced with the increase of the process temperature and the oxide thickness. The scallop effect on the vertical wall due to the plasma etching process also improved with the presence of the oxide layer. After oxidation, the channel width is reduced by ~40%. The demonstrated method is suggested for the fabrication of a uniform channel cross section with high aspect ratio in sub-micro and nanometer scale that will be useful for the electroosmotic (EO) ion manipulation of the biomedical fluid sample.

Original languageEnglish
Article number222
JournalMicromachines
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 May 2018

Fingerprint

Microchannels
Surface treatment
Silicon
Oxidation
Plasma etching
Oxides
Fabrication
Fluids
Surface properties
Hot Temperature
Aspect ratio
Surface roughness
Silica
Coatings
Scanning electron microscopy
Ions
Substrates
Temperature

Keywords

  • Electroosmotic flow;microfluidic
  • Silicon nanochannel
  • Surfacemodification
  • Thermal oxidation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Surface modification of electroosmotic silicon microchannel using thermal dry oxidation",
abstract = "A simple fabrication method for the surface modification of an electroosmotic silicon microchannel using thermal dry oxidation is presented. The surface modification is done by coating the silicon surface with a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer using a thermal oxidation process. The process aims not only to improve the surface quality of the channel to be suitable for electroosmotic fluid transport but also to reduce the channel width using a simple technique. Initially, the parallel microchannel array with dimensions of 0.5 mm length and a width ranging from 1.8 μm to 2 μm are created using plasma etching on the 2 cm × 2 cm silicon substrate < 100 > . The oxidation of the silicon channel in a thermal chamber is then conducted to create the SiO2 layer. The layer properties and the quality of the surface are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a surface profiler, respectively. The results show that the maximum oxidation growth rate occurs in the first 4 h of oxidation time and the rate decreases over time as the oxide layer becomes thicker. It is also found that the surface roughness is reduced with the increase of the process temperature and the oxide thickness. The scallop effect on the vertical wall due to the plasma etching process also improved with the presence of the oxide layer. After oxidation, the channel width is reduced by ~40{\%}. The demonstrated method is suggested for the fabrication of a uniform channel cross section with high aspect ratio in sub-micro and nanometer scale that will be useful for the electroosmotic (EO) ion manipulation of the biomedical fluid sample.",
keywords = "Electroosmotic flow;microfluidic, Silicon nanochannel, Surfacemodification, Thermal oxidation",
author = "Yaakub, {Tuan Norjihan Tuan} and Jumril Yunas and Latif Rhonira and Hamzah, {Azrul Azlan} and {Mohd Razip Wee}, {Mohd Farhanulhakim} and {Yeop Majlis}, Burhanuddin",
year = "2018",
month = "5",
day = "7",
doi = "10.3390/mi9050222",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
journal = "Micromachines",
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AU - Yaakub, Tuan Norjihan Tuan

AU - Yunas, Jumril

AU - Rhonira, Latif

AU - Hamzah, Azrul Azlan

AU - Mohd Razip Wee, Mohd Farhanulhakim

AU - Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

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N2 - A simple fabrication method for the surface modification of an electroosmotic silicon microchannel using thermal dry oxidation is presented. The surface modification is done by coating the silicon surface with a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer using a thermal oxidation process. The process aims not only to improve the surface quality of the channel to be suitable for electroosmotic fluid transport but also to reduce the channel width using a simple technique. Initially, the parallel microchannel array with dimensions of 0.5 mm length and a width ranging from 1.8 μm to 2 μm are created using plasma etching on the 2 cm × 2 cm silicon substrate < 100 > . The oxidation of the silicon channel in a thermal chamber is then conducted to create the SiO2 layer. The layer properties and the quality of the surface are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a surface profiler, respectively. The results show that the maximum oxidation growth rate occurs in the first 4 h of oxidation time and the rate decreases over time as the oxide layer becomes thicker. It is also found that the surface roughness is reduced with the increase of the process temperature and the oxide thickness. The scallop effect on the vertical wall due to the plasma etching process also improved with the presence of the oxide layer. After oxidation, the channel width is reduced by ~40%. The demonstrated method is suggested for the fabrication of a uniform channel cross section with high aspect ratio in sub-micro and nanometer scale that will be useful for the electroosmotic (EO) ion manipulation of the biomedical fluid sample.

AB - A simple fabrication method for the surface modification of an electroosmotic silicon microchannel using thermal dry oxidation is presented. The surface modification is done by coating the silicon surface with a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer using a thermal oxidation process. The process aims not only to improve the surface quality of the channel to be suitable for electroosmotic fluid transport but also to reduce the channel width using a simple technique. Initially, the parallel microchannel array with dimensions of 0.5 mm length and a width ranging from 1.8 μm to 2 μm are created using plasma etching on the 2 cm × 2 cm silicon substrate < 100 > . The oxidation of the silicon channel in a thermal chamber is then conducted to create the SiO2 layer. The layer properties and the quality of the surface are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a surface profiler, respectively. The results show that the maximum oxidation growth rate occurs in the first 4 h of oxidation time and the rate decreases over time as the oxide layer becomes thicker. It is also found that the surface roughness is reduced with the increase of the process temperature and the oxide thickness. The scallop effect on the vertical wall due to the plasma etching process also improved with the presence of the oxide layer. After oxidation, the channel width is reduced by ~40%. The demonstrated method is suggested for the fabrication of a uniform channel cross section with high aspect ratio in sub-micro and nanometer scale that will be useful for the electroosmotic (EO) ion manipulation of the biomedical fluid sample.

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