Supplementation with tocotrienol-rich fraction alters the plasma levels of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein e precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor from young and old individuals

Eng Chee Heng, Saiful Anuar Karsani, Mariati Abdul Rahman, Noor Aini Abdul Hamid, Zalina Hamid, Wan Zurina Wan Ngah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose Tocotrienol possess beneficial effects not exhibited by tocopherol. In vitro studies using animal models have suggested that these effects are caused via modulation of gene and protein expression. However, human supplementation studies using tocotrienol-rich isomers are limited. This study aims to identify plasma proteins that changed in expression following tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation within two different age groups. Methods Subjects were divided into two age groups- 32 ± 2 (young) and 52 ± 2 (old) years old. Four subjects from each group were assigned with TRF (78 % tocotrienol and 22 % tocopherol, 150 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 6 months. Fasting plasmawere obtained at 0, 3, and 6 months. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol levels were determined. Plasma proteome was resolved by 2DE, and differentially expressed proteins identified byMS. The expressions of three proteins were validated by Western blotting. Results Six months of TRF supplementation significantly increased plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Proteins identified as being differentially expressed were related to cholesterol homeostasis, acute-phase response, protease inhibitor, and immune response. The expressions of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein E precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor were validated. The old groups showed more proteins changing in expression. Conclusions TRF appears to not only affect plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, but also the levels of plasma proteins. The identity of these proteins may provide insights into how TRF exerts its beneficial effects. They may also be potentially developed into biomarkers for the study of the effects and effectiveness of TRF supplementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1811-1820
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume52
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013

Fingerprint

Tocotrienols
Protein Precursors
Apolipoproteins
Apolipoprotein A-I
C-Reactive Protein
Tocopherols
Proteins
Blood Proteins
Age Groups
Apolipoproteins C
Acute-Phase Reaction
Apolipoproteins E
Proteome
Protease Inhibitors
Capsules

Keywords

  • Matrix-Assisted laser desorption/ionization
  • Plasma proteins
  • Supplementation
  • Tocotrienol-rich fraction
  • Two-dimensional electrophoresis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Supplementation with tocotrienol-rich fraction alters the plasma levels of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein e precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor from young and old individuals. / Heng, Eng Chee; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Abdul Rahman, Mariati; Hamid, Noor Aini Abdul; Hamid, Zalina; Ngah, Wan Zurina Wan.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 52, No. 7, 10.2013, p. 1811-1820.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Supplementation with tocotrienol-rich fraction alters the plasma levels of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein e precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor from young and old individuals",
abstract = "Purpose Tocotrienol possess beneficial effects not exhibited by tocopherol. In vitro studies using animal models have suggested that these effects are caused via modulation of gene and protein expression. However, human supplementation studies using tocotrienol-rich isomers are limited. This study aims to identify plasma proteins that changed in expression following tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation within two different age groups. Methods Subjects were divided into two age groups- 32 ± 2 (young) and 52 ± 2 (old) years old. Four subjects from each group were assigned with TRF (78 {\%} tocotrienol and 22 {\%} tocopherol, 150 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 6 months. Fasting plasmawere obtained at 0, 3, and 6 months. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol levels were determined. Plasma proteome was resolved by 2DE, and differentially expressed proteins identified byMS. The expressions of three proteins were validated by Western blotting. Results Six months of TRF supplementation significantly increased plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Proteins identified as being differentially expressed were related to cholesterol homeostasis, acute-phase response, protease inhibitor, and immune response. The expressions of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein E precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor were validated. The old groups showed more proteins changing in expression. Conclusions TRF appears to not only affect plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, but also the levels of plasma proteins. The identity of these proteins may provide insights into how TRF exerts its beneficial effects. They may also be potentially developed into biomarkers for the study of the effects and effectiveness of TRF supplementation.",
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T1 - Supplementation with tocotrienol-rich fraction alters the plasma levels of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein e precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor from young and old individuals

AU - Heng, Eng Chee

AU - Karsani, Saiful Anuar

AU - Abdul Rahman, Mariati

AU - Hamid, Noor Aini Abdul

AU - Hamid, Zalina

AU - Ngah, Wan Zurina Wan

PY - 2013/10

Y1 - 2013/10

N2 - Purpose Tocotrienol possess beneficial effects not exhibited by tocopherol. In vitro studies using animal models have suggested that these effects are caused via modulation of gene and protein expression. However, human supplementation studies using tocotrienol-rich isomers are limited. This study aims to identify plasma proteins that changed in expression following tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation within two different age groups. Methods Subjects were divided into two age groups- 32 ± 2 (young) and 52 ± 2 (old) years old. Four subjects from each group were assigned with TRF (78 % tocotrienol and 22 % tocopherol, 150 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 6 months. Fasting plasmawere obtained at 0, 3, and 6 months. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol levels were determined. Plasma proteome was resolved by 2DE, and differentially expressed proteins identified byMS. The expressions of three proteins were validated by Western blotting. Results Six months of TRF supplementation significantly increased plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Proteins identified as being differentially expressed were related to cholesterol homeostasis, acute-phase response, protease inhibitor, and immune response. The expressions of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein E precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor were validated. The old groups showed more proteins changing in expression. Conclusions TRF appears to not only affect plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, but also the levels of plasma proteins. The identity of these proteins may provide insights into how TRF exerts its beneficial effects. They may also be potentially developed into biomarkers for the study of the effects and effectiveness of TRF supplementation.

AB - Purpose Tocotrienol possess beneficial effects not exhibited by tocopherol. In vitro studies using animal models have suggested that these effects are caused via modulation of gene and protein expression. However, human supplementation studies using tocotrienol-rich isomers are limited. This study aims to identify plasma proteins that changed in expression following tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation within two different age groups. Methods Subjects were divided into two age groups- 32 ± 2 (young) and 52 ± 2 (old) years old. Four subjects from each group were assigned with TRF (78 % tocotrienol and 22 % tocopherol, 150 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 6 months. Fasting plasmawere obtained at 0, 3, and 6 months. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol levels were determined. Plasma proteome was resolved by 2DE, and differentially expressed proteins identified byMS. The expressions of three proteins were validated by Western blotting. Results Six months of TRF supplementation significantly increased plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Proteins identified as being differentially expressed were related to cholesterol homeostasis, acute-phase response, protease inhibitor, and immune response. The expressions of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein E precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor were validated. The old groups showed more proteins changing in expression. Conclusions TRF appears to not only affect plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, but also the levels of plasma proteins. The identity of these proteins may provide insights into how TRF exerts its beneficial effects. They may also be potentially developed into biomarkers for the study of the effects and effectiveness of TRF supplementation.

KW - Matrix-Assisted laser desorption/ionization

KW - Plasma proteins

KW - Supplementation

KW - Tocotrienol-rich fraction

KW - Two-dimensional electrophoresis

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