Sugar intake and metabolic syndrome among older adults in Peninsular Malaysia

Nur Zetty Sofia Zainuddin, Suzana Shahar, Nik Shanita Safii, Hasnah Haron, Mohd Azahadi Omar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Sugar is widely consumed and excessive intake has been associated with increased risk of weight gain, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, leading to metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). However, the association between sugar intake and MetSyn has seldom been studied among multi-ethnic Malaysian older adults. Methods: A total of 1,057 respondents aged ≥60 years were recruited through multistage random sampling from selected states. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, blood test for sugar and lipid profile were determined. Dietary intake was derived using a 7-day dietary history questionnaire (DHQ) and a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for added sugar intake. Results: Prevalence of MetSyn was 39.9%, 30.9% and 42.2% using the harmonised definition, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) definitions respectively. Mean total sugar intake was 40.5±32.0 g (8 tsp) and added sugar intake was 33.0±31.0 g (6 tsp). Excessive added sugar consumption at 100th percentile increased risks of high total cholesterol by two-fold (p<0.001) and triglyceride by 1.8 fold (p<0.001). Total sugar intake at 50th percentile increased risk of high blood pressure by 0.68 fold (p<0.05) and total sugar intake at 50th, 75th and 100th percentile increased total cholesterol risk by 1.7 fold (p<0.01), 1.5 fold (p<0.05) and 2.3 fold (p<0.001) respectively. Conclusion: Excessive sugar consumption among older adults showed no association with MetSyn but revealed significant associations with blood pressure and lipid profiles. Effects of long term excessive consumption of sugar on health outcomes in older persons should be investigated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-174
Number of pages12
JournalMalaysian Journal of Nutrition
Volume24
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

Fingerprint

Malaysia
metabolic syndrome
sugars
Cholesterol
Blood Pressure
Lipids
Hematologic Tests
Weight Gain
Blood Glucose
Diabetes Mellitus
Triglycerides
Cardiovascular Diseases
Hypertension
Education
blood pressure
Food
Health
cholesterol
diet history
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • Elderly
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Older adults
  • Sugar consumption
  • Sugar intake

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Sugar intake and metabolic syndrome among older adults in Peninsular Malaysia. / Zainuddin, Nur Zetty Sofia; Shahar, Suzana; Safii, Nik Shanita; Haron, Hasnah; Omar, Mohd Azahadi.

In: Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 24, No. 2, 01.01.2018, p. 163-174.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Introduction: Sugar is widely consumed and excessive intake has been associated with increased risk of weight gain, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, leading to metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). However, the association between sugar intake and MetSyn has seldom been studied among multi-ethnic Malaysian older adults. Methods: A total of 1,057 respondents aged ≥60 years were recruited through multistage random sampling from selected states. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, blood test for sugar and lipid profile were determined. Dietary intake was derived using a 7-day dietary history questionnaire (DHQ) and a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for added sugar intake. Results: Prevalence of MetSyn was 39.9{\%}, 30.9{\%} and 42.2{\%} using the harmonised definition, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) definitions respectively. Mean total sugar intake was 40.5±32.0 g (8 tsp) and added sugar intake was 33.0±31.0 g (6 tsp). Excessive added sugar consumption at 100th percentile increased risks of high total cholesterol by two-fold (p<0.001) and triglyceride by 1.8 fold (p<0.001). Total sugar intake at 50th percentile increased risk of high blood pressure by 0.68 fold (p<0.05) and total sugar intake at 50th, 75th and 100th percentile increased total cholesterol risk by 1.7 fold (p<0.01), 1.5 fold (p<0.05) and 2.3 fold (p<0.001) respectively. Conclusion: Excessive sugar consumption among older adults showed no association with MetSyn but revealed significant associations with blood pressure and lipid profiles. Effects of long term excessive consumption of sugar on health outcomes in older persons should be investigated.",
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