Studies on the effects of titanate and silane coupling agents on the performance of poly (methyl methacrylate)/barium titanate denture base nanocomposites

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Abstract

Objectives This study aimed to fabricate and characterise silanated and titanated nanobarium titanate (NBT) filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base composites and to evaluate the behaviour of a titanate coupling agent (TCA) as an alternative coupling agent to silane. The effect of filler surface modification on fracture toughness was also studied. Methods Silanated, titanated and pure NBT at 5% were incorporated in PMMA matrix. Neat PMMA matrix served as a control. NBT was sonicated in MMA prior to mixing with the PMMA. Curing was carried out using a water bath at 75 °C for 1.5 h and then at 100 °C for 30 min. NBT was characterised via Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis before and after surface modification. The porosity and fracture toughness of the PMMA nanocomposites (n = 6, for each formulation and test) were also evaluated. Results NBT was successfully functionalised by the coupling agents. The TCA exhibited the lowest percentage of porosity (0.09%), whereas silane revealed 0.53% porosity. Statistically significant differences in fracture toughness were observed among the fracture toughness values of the tested samples (p < 0.05). While the fracture toughness of untreated samples was reduced by 8%, an enhancement of 25% was achieved after titanation. In addition, the fracture toughness of the titanated samples was higher than the silanated ones by 10%. Conclusion Formation of a monolayer on the surface of TCA enhanced the NBT dispersion, however agglomeration of silanated NBT was observed due to insufficient coverage of NBT surface. Such behaviour led to reducing the porosity level and improving fracture toughness of titanated NBT/PMMA composites. Thus, TCA seemed to be more effective than silane. Clinical significance Minimising the porosity level could have the potential to reduce fungus growth on denture base resin to be hygienically accepTable Such enhancements obtained with Ti-NBT could lead to promotion of the composites’ longevity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-132
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Dentistry
Volume56
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017

Fingerprint

Denture Bases
Silanes
Nanocomposites
Polymethyl Methacrylate
Barium
Porosity
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Baths
Fungi
Water
Growth

Keywords

  • Coupling agents
  • Dental materials
  • Fracture toughness
  • Interphase
  • Nanoparticles
  • Polymer composite
  • Porosity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

@article{8bfe2322c298460bae3e5a67273c984e,
title = "Studies on the effects of titanate and silane coupling agents on the performance of poly (methyl methacrylate)/barium titanate denture base nanocomposites",
abstract = "Objectives This study aimed to fabricate and characterise silanated and titanated nanobarium titanate (NBT) filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base composites and to evaluate the behaviour of a titanate coupling agent (TCA) as an alternative coupling agent to silane. The effect of filler surface modification on fracture toughness was also studied. Methods Silanated, titanated and pure NBT at 5{\%} were incorporated in PMMA matrix. Neat PMMA matrix served as a control. NBT was sonicated in MMA prior to mixing with the PMMA. Curing was carried out using a water bath at 75 °C for 1.5 h and then at 100 °C for 30 min. NBT was characterised via Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis before and after surface modification. The porosity and fracture toughness of the PMMA nanocomposites (n = 6, for each formulation and test) were also evaluated. Results NBT was successfully functionalised by the coupling agents. The TCA exhibited the lowest percentage of porosity (0.09{\%}), whereas silane revealed 0.53{\%} porosity. Statistically significant differences in fracture toughness were observed among the fracture toughness values of the tested samples (p < 0.05). While the fracture toughness of untreated samples was reduced by 8{\%}, an enhancement of 25{\%} was achieved after titanation. In addition, the fracture toughness of the titanated samples was higher than the silanated ones by 10{\%}. Conclusion Formation of a monolayer on the surface of TCA enhanced the NBT dispersion, however agglomeration of silanated NBT was observed due to insufficient coverage of NBT surface. Such behaviour led to reducing the porosity level and improving fracture toughness of titanated NBT/PMMA composites. Thus, TCA seemed to be more effective than silane. Clinical significance Minimising the porosity level could have the potential to reduce fungus growth on denture base resin to be hygienically accepTable Such enhancements obtained with Ti-NBT could lead to promotion of the composites’ longevity.",
keywords = "Coupling agents, Dental materials, Fracture toughness, Interphase, Nanoparticles, Polymer composite, Porosity",
author = "Elshereksi, {Nidal W.} and Ghazali, {Mariyam Jameelah} and Andanastuti Muchtar and Azhari, {Che Husna}",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jdent.2016.11.012",
language = "English",
volume = "56",
pages = "121--132",
journal = "Journal of Dentistry",
issn = "0300-5712",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Studies on the effects of titanate and silane coupling agents on the performance of poly (methyl methacrylate)/barium titanate denture base nanocomposites

AU - Elshereksi, Nidal W.

AU - Ghazali, Mariyam Jameelah

AU - Muchtar, Andanastuti

AU - Azhari, Che Husna

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Objectives This study aimed to fabricate and characterise silanated and titanated nanobarium titanate (NBT) filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base composites and to evaluate the behaviour of a titanate coupling agent (TCA) as an alternative coupling agent to silane. The effect of filler surface modification on fracture toughness was also studied. Methods Silanated, titanated and pure NBT at 5% were incorporated in PMMA matrix. Neat PMMA matrix served as a control. NBT was sonicated in MMA prior to mixing with the PMMA. Curing was carried out using a water bath at 75 °C for 1.5 h and then at 100 °C for 30 min. NBT was characterised via Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis before and after surface modification. The porosity and fracture toughness of the PMMA nanocomposites (n = 6, for each formulation and test) were also evaluated. Results NBT was successfully functionalised by the coupling agents. The TCA exhibited the lowest percentage of porosity (0.09%), whereas silane revealed 0.53% porosity. Statistically significant differences in fracture toughness were observed among the fracture toughness values of the tested samples (p < 0.05). While the fracture toughness of untreated samples was reduced by 8%, an enhancement of 25% was achieved after titanation. In addition, the fracture toughness of the titanated samples was higher than the silanated ones by 10%. Conclusion Formation of a monolayer on the surface of TCA enhanced the NBT dispersion, however agglomeration of silanated NBT was observed due to insufficient coverage of NBT surface. Such behaviour led to reducing the porosity level and improving fracture toughness of titanated NBT/PMMA composites. Thus, TCA seemed to be more effective than silane. Clinical significance Minimising the porosity level could have the potential to reduce fungus growth on denture base resin to be hygienically accepTable Such enhancements obtained with Ti-NBT could lead to promotion of the composites’ longevity.

AB - Objectives This study aimed to fabricate and characterise silanated and titanated nanobarium titanate (NBT) filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base composites and to evaluate the behaviour of a titanate coupling agent (TCA) as an alternative coupling agent to silane. The effect of filler surface modification on fracture toughness was also studied. Methods Silanated, titanated and pure NBT at 5% were incorporated in PMMA matrix. Neat PMMA matrix served as a control. NBT was sonicated in MMA prior to mixing with the PMMA. Curing was carried out using a water bath at 75 °C for 1.5 h and then at 100 °C for 30 min. NBT was characterised via Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis before and after surface modification. The porosity and fracture toughness of the PMMA nanocomposites (n = 6, for each formulation and test) were also evaluated. Results NBT was successfully functionalised by the coupling agents. The TCA exhibited the lowest percentage of porosity (0.09%), whereas silane revealed 0.53% porosity. Statistically significant differences in fracture toughness were observed among the fracture toughness values of the tested samples (p < 0.05). While the fracture toughness of untreated samples was reduced by 8%, an enhancement of 25% was achieved after titanation. In addition, the fracture toughness of the titanated samples was higher than the silanated ones by 10%. Conclusion Formation of a monolayer on the surface of TCA enhanced the NBT dispersion, however agglomeration of silanated NBT was observed due to insufficient coverage of NBT surface. Such behaviour led to reducing the porosity level and improving fracture toughness of titanated NBT/PMMA composites. Thus, TCA seemed to be more effective than silane. Clinical significance Minimising the porosity level could have the potential to reduce fungus growth on denture base resin to be hygienically accepTable Such enhancements obtained with Ti-NBT could lead to promotion of the composites’ longevity.

KW - Coupling agents

KW - Dental materials

KW - Fracture toughness

KW - Interphase

KW - Nanoparticles

KW - Polymer composite

KW - Porosity

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U2 - 10.1016/j.jdent.2016.11.012

DO - 10.1016/j.jdent.2016.11.012

M3 - Article

VL - 56

SP - 121

EP - 132

JO - Journal of Dentistry

JF - Journal of Dentistry

SN - 0300-5712

ER -