Street-level classification of illicit heroin using inorganic elements coupled with pattern monitoring

Kar Weng Chan, Zulkfeli Mohd-Edin, Leethavani Balachandran, Muhammad Hafis Zulkiflee, Md. Pauzi Abdullah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A total of 96 illicit heroin samples seized in 2013–2014 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine 16 inorganic elements at parts-per-billion (ppb) level. Of eleven submissions, two or three samples with similar appearance were taken from the same seizure to form related samples. These samples were used to monitor the clustering outcome suggested by principal component analysis (PCA). They provided hints regarding the acceptance of within-seizure variability in-situ. The previously established data pretreatment method (N+4R) did not function well with the present data probably due to the higher concentrations reported for the current samples. With the aid of the above-cited related samples for pattern monitoring, a better outcome was achieved when the pretreatment method was modified to employ solely standardization (S) to optimize the necessary variability for sample classification.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-279
Number of pages5
JournalEgyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016

Fingerprint

Heroin
Seizures
monitoring
Principal Component Analysis
Cluster Analysis
Mass Spectrometry
seizure
acceptance

Keywords

  • ICP-MS
  • Illicit heroin
  • Inorganic elements
  • PCA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Health(social science)
  • Law

Cite this

Street-level classification of illicit heroin using inorganic elements coupled with pattern monitoring. / Chan, Kar Weng; Mohd-Edin, Zulkfeli; Balachandran, Leethavani; Zulkiflee, Muhammad Hafis; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi.

In: Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 3, 01.09.2016, p. 275-279.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chan, Kar Weng ; Mohd-Edin, Zulkfeli ; Balachandran, Leethavani ; Zulkiflee, Muhammad Hafis ; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi. / Street-level classification of illicit heroin using inorganic elements coupled with pattern monitoring. In: Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2016 ; Vol. 6, No. 3. pp. 275-279.
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