Standardized extract of Zingiber zerumbet suppresses LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses through NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in U937 macrophages

Md Areeful Haque, Ibrahim Jantan, Hemavathy Harikrishnan, Shazliana Ghazalee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Zingiber zerumbet rhizome has been used as spices and in traditional medicine to heal various immune-inflammatory related ailments. Although the plant was reported to have potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties by several studies, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects have not been well justified. Purpose: The study was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of the standardized 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet through its effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MyD88)-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 human macrophages. Methods: Standardization of the 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet was performed by using a validated reversed-phase HPLC method, while LC-MS/MS was used to profile the secondary metabolites. The release of pro-inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the Western blot technique was executed to elucidate the expression of mediators linked to MyD88-dependent respective signaling pathways. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was carried out to quantify the relative gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and pro-inflammatory mediators at the transcriptional level. Results: The quantitative and qualitative analyses of Z. zerumbet extract showed the presence of several compounds including the major chemical marker zerumbone. Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2 protein expression and downregulated the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory markers. Z. zerumbet-treatment also blocked NF-κB activation by preventing the phosphorylation of IKKα/β and NF-κB (p65) as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Z. zerumbet extract concentration-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of respective MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38) as well as Akt. Correspondingly, Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the upstream signaling adaptor molecules, TLR4 and MyD88 prerequisite for the NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation. Conclusion: The findings suggest that Z. zerumbet has impressive role in suppressing inflammation and related immune disorders by inhibition of various pro-inflammatory markers through the imperative MyD88-dependent NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-205
Number of pages11
JournalPhytomedicine
Volume54
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2019

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Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase
NF-kappa B
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Lipopolysaccharides
Macrophages
Phosphorylation
Cyclooxygenase 2
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Ethanol
Spices
Rhizome
Immune System Diseases
Traditional Medicine
Immunosuppressive Agents
Interleukin-1
Dinoprostone
Reverse Transcription
Down-Regulation
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Western Blotting

Keywords

  • Anti-inflammatory effects
  • MAPKs
  • NF-Κb
  • PI3K-Akt
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines
  • Zingiber zerumbet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

Standardized extract of Zingiber zerumbet suppresses LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses through NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in U937 macrophages. / Haque, Md Areeful; Jantan, Ibrahim; Harikrishnan, Hemavathy; Ghazalee, Shazliana.

In: Phytomedicine, Vol. 54, 15.02.2019, p. 195-205.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Ghazalee, Shazliana

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AB - Background: Zingiber zerumbet rhizome has been used as spices and in traditional medicine to heal various immune-inflammatory related ailments. Although the plant was reported to have potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties by several studies, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects have not been well justified. Purpose: The study was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of the standardized 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet through its effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MyD88)-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 human macrophages. Methods: Standardization of the 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet was performed by using a validated reversed-phase HPLC method, while LC-MS/MS was used to profile the secondary metabolites. The release of pro-inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the Western blot technique was executed to elucidate the expression of mediators linked to MyD88-dependent respective signaling pathways. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was carried out to quantify the relative gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and pro-inflammatory mediators at the transcriptional level. Results: The quantitative and qualitative analyses of Z. zerumbet extract showed the presence of several compounds including the major chemical marker zerumbone. Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2 protein expression and downregulated the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory markers. Z. zerumbet-treatment also blocked NF-κB activation by preventing the phosphorylation of IKKα/β and NF-κB (p65) as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Z. zerumbet extract concentration-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of respective MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38) as well as Akt. Correspondingly, Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the upstream signaling adaptor molecules, TLR4 and MyD88 prerequisite for the NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation. Conclusion: The findings suggest that Z. zerumbet has impressive role in suppressing inflammation and related immune disorders by inhibition of various pro-inflammatory markers through the imperative MyD88-dependent NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation.

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