Spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies among women with breast cancer

R. Raja Lexshimi K. Raja Gopal, E. Mohd Fahmi, S. C. Lee, H. Nor Suhana, H. Norhazirah, A. Sh Ezat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Spirituality and mental adjustment have been widely adopted as coping strategies among women with breast cancer. Little information was available locally on the use of spirituality and mental adjustment as coping mechanisms to fight breast cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies and its association with socio demographic data on 216 women with breast cancer. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) and Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) Scales were used to assess spirituality and mental adjustment. Negative correlation between spiritual well-being and helplessness/hopelessness (r=-0.690; p=0.000), anxious preoccupation (r=-0.277; p=0.000) and avoidance (r=-0.235; p=0.000) and positive correlation between spiritual well-being and fighting spirit (r=0.668; p=0.000) were identified. Socio-demographic factors such as race (p=0.000), religion (p=0.000), academic qualification (p=0.004) and type of surgery (p=0.016) revealed significant relationship with spiritual well-being. Fighting spirit, hopelessness/helplessness and anxious preoccupation also yielded significant relationship with race (p<0.0001), religion (p=0.001) and academic qualification (p=0.024). Helplessness/hopelessness had a significant relationship with stage of disease (p=0.017) and type of surgery (p=0.011). Meanwhile, fatalistic and avoidance showed a strong relationship with age (p=0.014, r=0.167), occupation (p=0.001) and income (p=0.006), race (p=0.007) and academic qualification (p=0.005). It is thus, concluded that spirituality and mental adjustment are two coping strategies widely adopted by Malaysian women after a breast cancer diagnosis and throughout their breast cancer journey. Women with breast cancer, therefore, should be treated holistically rather than just the disease itself.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalMalaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine
Volume14
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Social Adjustment
Spirituality
Breast Neoplasms
Religion
Spiritual Therapies
Demography
Occupations
Chronic Disease
Cross-Sectional Studies
Neoplasms

Keywords

  • Breast cancer
  • Coping
  • Mental adjustment
  • Spiritual well-being
  • Spirituality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

K. Raja Gopal, R. R. L., Mohd Fahmi, E., Lee, S. C., Nor Suhana, H., Norhazirah, H., & Sh Ezat, A. (2014). Spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies among women with breast cancer. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 14(1), 1-9.

Spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies among women with breast cancer. / K. Raja Gopal, R. Raja Lexshimi; Mohd Fahmi, E.; Lee, S. C.; Nor Suhana, H.; Norhazirah, H.; Sh Ezat, A.

In: Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2014, p. 1-9.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

K. Raja Gopal, RRL, Mohd Fahmi, E, Lee, SC, Nor Suhana, H, Norhazirah, H & Sh Ezat, A 2014, 'Spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies among women with breast cancer', Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-9.
K. Raja Gopal RRL, Mohd Fahmi E, Lee SC, Nor Suhana H, Norhazirah H, Sh Ezat A. Spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies among women with breast cancer. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine. 2014;14(1):1-9.
K. Raja Gopal, R. Raja Lexshimi ; Mohd Fahmi, E. ; Lee, S. C. ; Nor Suhana, H. ; Norhazirah, H. ; Sh Ezat, A. / Spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies among women with breast cancer. In: Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine. 2014 ; Vol. 14, No. 1. pp. 1-9.
@article{7745e46489c842c79e0ab6eeedd64e5b,
title = "Spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies among women with breast cancer",
abstract = "Spirituality and mental adjustment have been widely adopted as coping strategies among women with breast cancer. Little information was available locally on the use of spirituality and mental adjustment as coping mechanisms to fight breast cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies and its association with socio demographic data on 216 women with breast cancer. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) and Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) Scales were used to assess spirituality and mental adjustment. Negative correlation between spiritual well-being and helplessness/hopelessness (r=-0.690; p=0.000), anxious preoccupation (r=-0.277; p=0.000) and avoidance (r=-0.235; p=0.000) and positive correlation between spiritual well-being and fighting spirit (r=0.668; p=0.000) were identified. Socio-demographic factors such as race (p=0.000), religion (p=0.000), academic qualification (p=0.004) and type of surgery (p=0.016) revealed significant relationship with spiritual well-being. Fighting spirit, hopelessness/helplessness and anxious preoccupation also yielded significant relationship with race (p<0.0001), religion (p=0.001) and academic qualification (p=0.024). Helplessness/hopelessness had a significant relationship with stage of disease (p=0.017) and type of surgery (p=0.011). Meanwhile, fatalistic and avoidance showed a strong relationship with age (p=0.014, r=0.167), occupation (p=0.001) and income (p=0.006), race (p=0.007) and academic qualification (p=0.005). It is thus, concluded that spirituality and mental adjustment are two coping strategies widely adopted by Malaysian women after a breast cancer diagnosis and throughout their breast cancer journey. Women with breast cancer, therefore, should be treated holistically rather than just the disease itself.",
keywords = "Breast cancer, Coping, Mental adjustment, Spiritual well-being, Spirituality",
author = "{K. Raja Gopal}, {R. Raja Lexshimi} and {Mohd Fahmi}, E. and Lee, {S. C.} and {Nor Suhana}, H. and H. Norhazirah and {Sh Ezat}, A.",
year = "2014",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
pages = "1--9",
journal = "Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine",
issn = "1675-0306",
publisher = "Malaysian Public Health Physicians' Association",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies among women with breast cancer

AU - K. Raja Gopal, R. Raja Lexshimi

AU - Mohd Fahmi, E.

AU - Lee, S. C.

AU - Nor Suhana, H.

AU - Norhazirah, H.

AU - Sh Ezat, A.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Spirituality and mental adjustment have been widely adopted as coping strategies among women with breast cancer. Little information was available locally on the use of spirituality and mental adjustment as coping mechanisms to fight breast cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies and its association with socio demographic data on 216 women with breast cancer. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) and Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) Scales were used to assess spirituality and mental adjustment. Negative correlation between spiritual well-being and helplessness/hopelessness (r=-0.690; p=0.000), anxious preoccupation (r=-0.277; p=0.000) and avoidance (r=-0.235; p=0.000) and positive correlation between spiritual well-being and fighting spirit (r=0.668; p=0.000) were identified. Socio-demographic factors such as race (p=0.000), religion (p=0.000), academic qualification (p=0.004) and type of surgery (p=0.016) revealed significant relationship with spiritual well-being. Fighting spirit, hopelessness/helplessness and anxious preoccupation also yielded significant relationship with race (p<0.0001), religion (p=0.001) and academic qualification (p=0.024). Helplessness/hopelessness had a significant relationship with stage of disease (p=0.017) and type of surgery (p=0.011). Meanwhile, fatalistic and avoidance showed a strong relationship with age (p=0.014, r=0.167), occupation (p=0.001) and income (p=0.006), race (p=0.007) and academic qualification (p=0.005). It is thus, concluded that spirituality and mental adjustment are two coping strategies widely adopted by Malaysian women after a breast cancer diagnosis and throughout their breast cancer journey. Women with breast cancer, therefore, should be treated holistically rather than just the disease itself.

AB - Spirituality and mental adjustment have been widely adopted as coping strategies among women with breast cancer. Little information was available locally on the use of spirituality and mental adjustment as coping mechanisms to fight breast cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess spirituality and mental adjustment as coping strategies and its association with socio demographic data on 216 women with breast cancer. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) and Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) Scales were used to assess spirituality and mental adjustment. Negative correlation between spiritual well-being and helplessness/hopelessness (r=-0.690; p=0.000), anxious preoccupation (r=-0.277; p=0.000) and avoidance (r=-0.235; p=0.000) and positive correlation between spiritual well-being and fighting spirit (r=0.668; p=0.000) were identified. Socio-demographic factors such as race (p=0.000), religion (p=0.000), academic qualification (p=0.004) and type of surgery (p=0.016) revealed significant relationship with spiritual well-being. Fighting spirit, hopelessness/helplessness and anxious preoccupation also yielded significant relationship with race (p<0.0001), religion (p=0.001) and academic qualification (p=0.024). Helplessness/hopelessness had a significant relationship with stage of disease (p=0.017) and type of surgery (p=0.011). Meanwhile, fatalistic and avoidance showed a strong relationship with age (p=0.014, r=0.167), occupation (p=0.001) and income (p=0.006), race (p=0.007) and academic qualification (p=0.005). It is thus, concluded that spirituality and mental adjustment are two coping strategies widely adopted by Malaysian women after a breast cancer diagnosis and throughout their breast cancer journey. Women with breast cancer, therefore, should be treated holistically rather than just the disease itself.

KW - Breast cancer

KW - Coping

KW - Mental adjustment

KW - Spiritual well-being

KW - Spirituality

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84901200525&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84901200525&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84901200525

VL - 14

SP - 1

EP - 9

JO - Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine

JF - Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine

SN - 1675-0306

IS - 1

ER -