Speciation of heavy metals in paddy soils from selected areas in Kedah and Penang, Malaysia

Habibah Jamil, Lee Pei Theng, Khairiah Jusoh, Ahmad Mahir Razali, Fouzi B. Ali, Ismail Sahid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study was carried out with the intention of evaluating heavy metal contamination in cultivated paddy areas. The speciation of heavy metals in paddy soils was determined in order to gain insight regarding their origin and distribution in soils. Five sampling sites were randomly selected from Kedah (Yan, Kota Setar, Kubang Pasu district) and Penang (Bumbung Lima district), where the soils constituted marine alluvial deposits. A site in Langkawi, where organic paddy farming is practised was used as the control. The sequential extraction method was adopted in order to obtain the four heavy metal fractions namely the easily leachable and ion exchange (ELFE), acid reducible (AR), oxidizable organic (OO) and resistant (RR) fractions. This study shows that the soil samples were clayey (82 to 96% of grain size <63 μm), fairly high in organic carbon (6.54 to 8.71%) and slightly acidic (pH 4.92 to 5.12). Heavy metal content in the soils varied widely and occurred in the following decreasing order of Fe>Mn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn predominantly occurred in the insoluble form (RR fraction), with the oxides of Fe and Mn incorporated into the clay minerals. Although, the fertilizers and pesticides studied contained low amounts of heavy metals, the elevated amount of amount of Mn and Cd in the soils (ELFE fraction) could possibly be attributed to the longterm and repeated application of these materials to the cultivated paddy areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13505-13513
Number of pages9
JournalAfrican Journal of Biotechnology
Volume10
Issue number62
Publication statusPublished - 12 Oct 2011

Fingerprint

paddy soils
Malaysia
Heavy Metals
heavy metals
Soil
paddies
soil separates
Organic Agriculture
alluvium
Ion Exchange
Fertilizers
ion exchange
clay minerals
Pesticides
Oxides
oxides
Minerals
soil
pesticides
soil sampling

Keywords

  • Fertilizer
  • Heavy metals
  • Paddy soil
  • Pesticide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

Speciation of heavy metals in paddy soils from selected areas in Kedah and Penang, Malaysia. / Jamil, Habibah; Theng, Lee Pei; Jusoh, Khairiah; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Ali, Fouzi B.; Sahid, Ismail.

In: African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 10, No. 62, 12.10.2011, p. 13505-13513.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jamil, Habibah ; Theng, Lee Pei ; Jusoh, Khairiah ; Razali, Ahmad Mahir ; Ali, Fouzi B. ; Sahid, Ismail. / Speciation of heavy metals in paddy soils from selected areas in Kedah and Penang, Malaysia. In: African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011 ; Vol. 10, No. 62. pp. 13505-13513.
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