Spatial assessment of air quality patterns in Malaysia using multivariate analysis

Doreena Dominick, Hafizan Juahir, Mohd Talib Latif, Sharifuddin M. Zain, Ahmad Zaharin Aris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

119 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study aims to investigate possible sources of air pollutants and the spatial patterns within the eight selected Malaysian air monitoring stations based on a two-year database (2008-2009). The multivariate analysis was applied on the dataset. It incorporated Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA) to access the spatial patterns, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the major sources of the air pollution and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) to assess the percentage contribution of each air pollutant. The HACA results grouped the eight monitoring stations into three different clusters, based on the characteristics of the air pollutants and meteorological parameters. The PCA analysis showed that the major sources of air pollution were emissions from motor vehicles, aircraft, industries and areas of high population density. The MLR analysis demonstrated that the main pollutant contributing to variability in the Air Pollutant Index (API) at all stations was particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 μm (PM 10). Further MLR analysis showed that the main air pollutant influencing the high concentration of PM 10 was carbon monoxide (CO). This was due to combustion processes, particularly originating from motor vehicles. Meteorological factors such as ambient temperature, wind speed and humidity were also noted to influence the concentration of PM 10.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)172-181
Number of pages10
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume60
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2012

Fingerprint

multivariate analysis
air quality
cluster analysis
principal component analysis
regression analysis
atmospheric pollution
carbon monoxide
particulate matter
population density
humidity
aircraft
combustion
wind velocity
air pollutant
pollutant
industry
air
temperature
monitoring station
motor vehicle

Keywords

  • Air pollutants
  • HACA
  • MLR
  • Multivariate analysis
  • PCA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Spatial assessment of air quality patterns in Malaysia using multivariate analysis. / Dominick, Doreena; Juahir, Hafizan; Latif, Mohd Talib; Zain, Sharifuddin M.; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 60, 12.2012, p. 172-181.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dominick, Doreena ; Juahir, Hafizan ; Latif, Mohd Talib ; Zain, Sharifuddin M. ; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin. / Spatial assessment of air quality patterns in Malaysia using multivariate analysis. In: Atmospheric Environment. 2012 ; Vol. 60. pp. 172-181.
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