Source apportionment and health risk assessment of PM10 in a naturally ventilated school in a tropical environment

Noorlin Mohamad, Mohd Talib Latif, Firoz Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and potential sources of PM10 as well as assess the potential health hazards it posed to school children. PM10 samples were taken from classrooms at a school in Kuala Lumpur's city centre (S1) and one in the suburban city of Putrajaya (S2) over a period of eight hours using a low volume sampler (LVS). The composition of the major ions and trace metals in PM10 were then analysed using ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. The results showed that the average PM10 concentration inside the classroom at the city centre school (82 g/m3) was higher than that from the suburban school (77 g/m3). Principal component analysis-absolute principal component scores (PCA-APCS) revealed that road dust was the major source of indoor PM10 at both school in the city centre (36%) and the suburban location (55%). The total hazard quotient (HQ) calculated, based on the formula suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), was found to be slightly higher than the acceptable level of 1, indicating that inhalation exposure to particle-bound non-carcinogenic metals of PM10, particularly Cr exposure by children and adults occupying the school environment, was far from negligible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-362
Number of pages12
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Volume124
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016

Fingerprint

Health risks
Risk assessment
Ion chromatography
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Health hazards
Health
Environmental Protection Agency
Chemical analysis
Principal component analysis
Dust
Hazards
Ions
Metals
Inhalation Exposure
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Principal Component Analysis
Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry
Trace metals

Keywords

  • Chemical composition
  • Children
  • Health risk
  • Particulate matter
  • PCA-APCS
  • School environment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution

Cite this

Source apportionment and health risk assessment of PM10 in a naturally ventilated school in a tropical environment. / Mohamad, Noorlin; Latif, Mohd Talib; Khan, Firoz.

In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 124, 01.02.2016, p. 351-362.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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