Source apportionment and health risk assessment among specific age groups during haze and non-haze episodes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Nor Azura Sulong, Mohd Talib Latif, Firoz Khan, Norhaniza Amil, Matthew J. Ashfold, Muhammad Ikram A Wahab, Chan Kok Meng, Mazrura Sahani

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Abstract

This study aims to determine PM2.5 concentrations and their composition during haze and non-haze episodes in Kuala Lumpur. In order to investigate the origin of the measured air masses, the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) were applied. Source apportionment of PM2.5 was determined using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were estimated using the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method. PM2.5 samples were collected from the centre of the city using a high-volume air sampler (HVS). The results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations collected during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods were 24.5 ± 12.0 μg m− 3, 72.3 ± 38.0 μg m− 3 and 14.3 ± 3.58 μg m− 3, respectively. The highest concentration of PM2.5 during haze episode was five times higher than World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. Inorganic compositions of PM2.5, including trace elements and water soluble ions were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The major trace elements identified were K, Al, Ca, Mg and Fe which accounted for approximately 93%, 91% and 92% of the overall metals' portions recorded during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods, respectively. For water-soluble ions, secondary inorganic aerosols (SO4 2 −, NO3 and NH4 +) contributed around 12%, 43% and 16% of the overall PM2.5 mass during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods, respectively. During haze periods, the predominant source identified using PMF was secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and biomass burning where the NAME simulations indicate the importance of fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. The main source during pre-haze and post-haze were mix SIA and road dust as well as mineral dust, respectively. The highest non-carcinogenic health risk during haze episode was estimated among the infant group (HI = 1.06) while the highest carcinogenic health risk was estimated among the adult group (2.27 × 10− 5).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)556-570
Number of pages15
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume601-602
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

Fingerprint

Health risks
haze
Aerosols
Risk assessment
health risk
risk assessment
Trace Elements
Trace elements
Factorization
Dust
Fires
Ions
Ion chromatography
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Water
Environmental Protection Agency
Air
Chemical analysis
Minerals
Biomass

Keywords

  • Biomass burning
  • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk
  • PM aerosols
  • PMF
  • Transboundary smoke haze

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

Cite this

@article{3eb9b6e89704464aba9003b848160fed,
title = "Source apportionment and health risk assessment among specific age groups during haze and non-haze episodes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia",
abstract = "This study aims to determine PM2.5 concentrations and their composition during haze and non-haze episodes in Kuala Lumpur. In order to investigate the origin of the measured air masses, the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) were applied. Source apportionment of PM2.5 was determined using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were estimated using the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method. PM2.5 samples were collected from the centre of the city using a high-volume air sampler (HVS). The results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations collected during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods were 24.5 ± 12.0 μg m− 3, 72.3 ± 38.0 μg m− 3 and 14.3 ± 3.58 μg m− 3, respectively. The highest concentration of PM2.5 during haze episode was five times higher than World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. Inorganic compositions of PM2.5, including trace elements and water soluble ions were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The major trace elements identified were K, Al, Ca, Mg and Fe which accounted for approximately 93{\%}, 91{\%} and 92{\%} of the overall metals' portions recorded during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods, respectively. For water-soluble ions, secondary inorganic aerosols (SO4 2 −, NO3 − and NH4 +) contributed around 12{\%}, 43{\%} and 16{\%} of the overall PM2.5 mass during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods, respectively. During haze periods, the predominant source identified using PMF was secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and biomass burning where the NAME simulations indicate the importance of fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. The main source during pre-haze and post-haze were mix SIA and road dust as well as mineral dust, respectively. The highest non-carcinogenic health risk during haze episode was estimated among the infant group (HI = 1.06) while the highest carcinogenic health risk was estimated among the adult group (2.27 × 10− 5).",
keywords = "Biomass burning, Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk, PM aerosols, PMF, Transboundary smoke haze",
author = "Sulong, {Nor Azura} and Latif, {Mohd Talib} and Firoz Khan and Norhaniza Amil and Ashfold, {Matthew J.} and {A Wahab}, {Muhammad Ikram} and {Kok Meng}, Chan and Mazrura Sahani",
year = "2017",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.153",
language = "English",
volume = "601-602",
pages = "556--570",
journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
issn = "0048-9697",
publisher = "Elsevier",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Source apportionment and health risk assessment among specific age groups during haze and non-haze episodes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

AU - Sulong, Nor Azura

AU - Latif, Mohd Talib

AU - Khan, Firoz

AU - Amil, Norhaniza

AU - Ashfold, Matthew J.

AU - A Wahab, Muhammad Ikram

AU - Kok Meng, Chan

AU - Sahani, Mazrura

PY - 2017/12/1

Y1 - 2017/12/1

N2 - This study aims to determine PM2.5 concentrations and their composition during haze and non-haze episodes in Kuala Lumpur. In order to investigate the origin of the measured air masses, the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) were applied. Source apportionment of PM2.5 was determined using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were estimated using the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method. PM2.5 samples were collected from the centre of the city using a high-volume air sampler (HVS). The results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations collected during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods were 24.5 ± 12.0 μg m− 3, 72.3 ± 38.0 μg m− 3 and 14.3 ± 3.58 μg m− 3, respectively. The highest concentration of PM2.5 during haze episode was five times higher than World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. Inorganic compositions of PM2.5, including trace elements and water soluble ions were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The major trace elements identified were K, Al, Ca, Mg and Fe which accounted for approximately 93%, 91% and 92% of the overall metals' portions recorded during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods, respectively. For water-soluble ions, secondary inorganic aerosols (SO4 2 −, NO3 − and NH4 +) contributed around 12%, 43% and 16% of the overall PM2.5 mass during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods, respectively. During haze periods, the predominant source identified using PMF was secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and biomass burning where the NAME simulations indicate the importance of fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. The main source during pre-haze and post-haze were mix SIA and road dust as well as mineral dust, respectively. The highest non-carcinogenic health risk during haze episode was estimated among the infant group (HI = 1.06) while the highest carcinogenic health risk was estimated among the adult group (2.27 × 10− 5).

AB - This study aims to determine PM2.5 concentrations and their composition during haze and non-haze episodes in Kuala Lumpur. In order to investigate the origin of the measured air masses, the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) were applied. Source apportionment of PM2.5 was determined using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were estimated using the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method. PM2.5 samples were collected from the centre of the city using a high-volume air sampler (HVS). The results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations collected during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods were 24.5 ± 12.0 μg m− 3, 72.3 ± 38.0 μg m− 3 and 14.3 ± 3.58 μg m− 3, respectively. The highest concentration of PM2.5 during haze episode was five times higher than World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. Inorganic compositions of PM2.5, including trace elements and water soluble ions were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The major trace elements identified were K, Al, Ca, Mg and Fe which accounted for approximately 93%, 91% and 92% of the overall metals' portions recorded during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods, respectively. For water-soluble ions, secondary inorganic aerosols (SO4 2 −, NO3 − and NH4 +) contributed around 12%, 43% and 16% of the overall PM2.5 mass during pre-haze, haze and post-haze periods, respectively. During haze periods, the predominant source identified using PMF was secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and biomass burning where the NAME simulations indicate the importance of fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. The main source during pre-haze and post-haze were mix SIA and road dust as well as mineral dust, respectively. The highest non-carcinogenic health risk during haze episode was estimated among the infant group (HI = 1.06) while the highest carcinogenic health risk was estimated among the adult group (2.27 × 10− 5).

KW - Biomass burning

KW - Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk

KW - PM aerosols

KW - PMF

KW - Transboundary smoke haze

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U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.153

DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.153

M3 - Article

VL - 601-602

SP - 556

EP - 570

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

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