Solvolytic liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres: Analysis of product fractions using FTIR and pyrolysis-GCMS

Fei Ling Pua, Sarani Zakaria, Chin Hua Chia, Suet Pin Fan, Thomas Rosenau, Antje Potthast, Falk Liebner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers were subjected to solvolytic liquefaction to convert into liquid products using ethylene glycol (EG) as a supporting agent. The process was carried out at 250°C for 60 min. The water-insoluble product fraction was exhaustively extracted with acetone (ASL fraction) to separate all less polar. FTIR and comparative analytical pyrolysis GC/MS of the parent EFB fiber and the ASL fraction confirmed the formation of larger amounts of long-chain lipophilic compounds under liquefaction conditions. Furthermore, a considerable amount of less polar thermal lignin degradation products were obtained comprising all of the three main lignin building blocks, i.e. 4-hydroxyphenyl-(P units), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-(G units) and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl (S units) substituted compounds. 4-Prop-2-en-1-yl substituted phenolic compounds contributed mostly to the cumulated peak area of all lignin derived pyrolysis products obtained by analytical Curie point pyrolysis GC/MS at 600C. The results of both instrumental-analytical methods confirm the formation of phenol and its derivatives, furan derivatives, organic acids, hydrocarbon, ester, benzene groups and alcohols.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)793-799
Number of pages7
JournalSains Malaysiana
Volume42
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

Fingerprint

Palm oil
Lignin
Liquefaction
Fruits
Pyrolysis
Fibers
Derivatives
Ethylene Glycol
Organic acids
Hydrocarbons
Acetone
Phenol
Benzene
Esters
Alcohols
Degradation
Water
Liquids

Keywords

  • Ethylene glycol
  • FTIR
  • Oil palm empty fruit bunch
  • Pyrolysis-GCMS
  • Solvolytic liquefaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Solvolytic liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres : Analysis of product fractions using FTIR and pyrolysis-GCMS. / Pua, Fei Ling; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Fan, Suet Pin; Rosenau, Thomas; Potthast, Antje; Liebner, Falk.

In: Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 42, No. 6, 06.2013, p. 793-799.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pua, Fei Ling ; Zakaria, Sarani ; Chia, Chin Hua ; Fan, Suet Pin ; Rosenau, Thomas ; Potthast, Antje ; Liebner, Falk. / Solvolytic liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres : Analysis of product fractions using FTIR and pyrolysis-GCMS. In: Sains Malaysiana. 2013 ; Vol. 42, No. 6. pp. 793-799.
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