Solar photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol with ZnO nanoparticles: optimisation with D-optimal design and study of intermediate mechanisms

Muneer M. Ba-Abbad, Mohd Sobri Takriff, Abdul Amir H. Kadhum, Abu Bakar Mohamad, Abdelbaki Benamor, Abdul Wahab Mohammad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of toxic pollutant (2-chlorophenol) in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was investigated under solar radiation. The three main factors, namely pH of solution, solar intensity and calcination temperature, were selected in order to examine their effects on the efficiency of the degradation process. The response surface methodology (RSM) technique based on D-optimal design was applied to optimise the process. ANOVA analysis showed that solar intensity and calcination temperature were the two significant factors for degradation efficiency. The optimum conditions in the model were solar intensity at 19.8 W/m2, calcination temperature at 404 °C and pH of 6.0. The maximum degradation efficiency was predicted to be 90.5% which was in good agreement with the actual experimental value of 93.5%. The fit of the D-optimal design correlated very well with the experimental results with higher values of R2 and R2 adj correlation coefficients of 0.9847 and 0.9676, respectively. The intermediate mechanism behaviour of the 2-chlorophenol degradation process was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results confirmed that 2-chlorophenol was converted to acetic acid, a non-toxic compound.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 12 Nov 2016

Fingerprint

chlorophenol
Nanoparticles
Degradation
degradation
Temperature
Calcination
Poisons
Acetic Acid
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Analysis of Variance
Radiation
temperature
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Solar radiation
Acetic acid
Gas chromatography
acetic acid
Mass spectrometry
solar radiation
gas chromatography

Keywords

  • 2-chlorophenol
  • D-optimal design
  • Photocatalytic
  • ZnO NPs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Solar photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol with ZnO nanoparticles : optimisation with D-optimal design and study of intermediate mechanisms. / Ba-Abbad, Muneer M.; Takriff, Mohd Sobri; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Benamor, Abdelbaki; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab.

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 12.11.2016, p. 1-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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