Shell extract of seed from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (dabai) fruit as potential source of antibacterial agent

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol shell extracts of seed from C. odontophyllum fruit at 12.5 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml against two Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, clinical strain of Bacillus cereus and seven clinical strains of Gram-negative organisms; Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Shigellasonnei, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Proteus spp. and Acinetobacter baumannii. The highest yield (1.76 %) was obtained using methanol as extraction solvent despite showing no antibacterial activity. The extraction yield of acetone was 0.59 % whereas the lowest yield (0.29 %) was produced by ethyl acetate. From the antibacterial screening assay, the growth of Bacillus cereus was inhibited by ethyl acetate extract with inhibition zone ranging from 9.6 ± 0.1 mm to 14.6 ± 0.1 mm whereas the acetone extract was capable of inhibiting P.mirabilis and A. baumannii at respectively, 9.6 ± 0.0 mm to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm and7.0 ± 0.1 mm to 13.0 ± 0.1 mm. The MIC and MBC values of ethyl acetate and acetone extract were the same against Bacillus cereus and A.baumannii at 6.25 mg/ml and 1.563 mg/ml, respectively. As for Proteus mirabilis, the MBC value of acetone extract was eight times higher (6.25 mg/ml) than its MIC value at 0.781 mg/ml. Phytochemical screening showed that ethyl acetate extract indicated the presence of flavonoid and tannin whereas acetone extract contained terpenoid and tannin. In conclusion, acetone shell extract of seed from C. odontophyllum fruit showed promising antibacterial and thus, have great potential as an alternative phytotherapeutic treatment against infections associated with A. baumannii and P. mirabilis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number46
Pages (from-to)257-262
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research
Volume28
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2014

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Acetone
Fruit
Seeds
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Acinetobacter baumannii
Proteus mirabilis
Bacillus cereus
Tannins
Methanol
Mirabilis
Yersinia enterocolitica
Proteus
Terpenes
Phytochemicals
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Salmonella typhimurium
Flavonoids
Staphylococcus aureus
ethyl acetate
Escherichia coli

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial
  • Canariumodontophyllum
  • Disc diffusion
  • Extraction yield
  • MBC
  • MIC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

Cite this

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title = "Shell extract of seed from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (dabai) fruit as potential source of antibacterial agent",
abstract = "The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol shell extracts of seed from C. odontophyllum fruit at 12.5 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml against two Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, clinical strain of Bacillus cereus and seven clinical strains of Gram-negative organisms; Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Shigellasonnei, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Proteus spp. and Acinetobacter baumannii. The highest yield (1.76 {\%}) was obtained using methanol as extraction solvent despite showing no antibacterial activity. The extraction yield of acetone was 0.59 {\%} whereas the lowest yield (0.29 {\%}) was produced by ethyl acetate. From the antibacterial screening assay, the growth of Bacillus cereus was inhibited by ethyl acetate extract with inhibition zone ranging from 9.6 ± 0.1 mm to 14.6 ± 0.1 mm whereas the acetone extract was capable of inhibiting P.mirabilis and A. baumannii at respectively, 9.6 ± 0.0 mm to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm and7.0 ± 0.1 mm to 13.0 ± 0.1 mm. The MIC and MBC values of ethyl acetate and acetone extract were the same against Bacillus cereus and A.baumannii at 6.25 mg/ml and 1.563 mg/ml, respectively. As for Proteus mirabilis, the MBC value of acetone extract was eight times higher (6.25 mg/ml) than its MIC value at 0.781 mg/ml. Phytochemical screening showed that ethyl acetate extract indicated the presence of flavonoid and tannin whereas acetone extract contained terpenoid and tannin. In conclusion, acetone shell extract of seed from C. odontophyllum fruit showed promising antibacterial and thus, have great potential as an alternative phytotherapeutic treatment against infections associated with A. baumannii and P. mirabilis.",
keywords = "Antimicrobial, Canariumodontophyllum, Disc diffusion, Extraction yield, MBC, MIC",
author = "Basri, {Dayang Fredalina} and Siti FairuzIshak and {Mohamad Zin}, Noraziah",
year = "2014",
month = "9",
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volume = "28",
pages = "257--262",
journal = "International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research",
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T1 - Shell extract of seed from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (dabai) fruit as potential source of antibacterial agent

AU - Basri, Dayang Fredalina

AU - FairuzIshak, Siti

AU - Mohamad Zin, Noraziah

PY - 2014/9/1

Y1 - 2014/9/1

N2 - The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol shell extracts of seed from C. odontophyllum fruit at 12.5 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml against two Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, clinical strain of Bacillus cereus and seven clinical strains of Gram-negative organisms; Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Shigellasonnei, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Proteus spp. and Acinetobacter baumannii. The highest yield (1.76 %) was obtained using methanol as extraction solvent despite showing no antibacterial activity. The extraction yield of acetone was 0.59 % whereas the lowest yield (0.29 %) was produced by ethyl acetate. From the antibacterial screening assay, the growth of Bacillus cereus was inhibited by ethyl acetate extract with inhibition zone ranging from 9.6 ± 0.1 mm to 14.6 ± 0.1 mm whereas the acetone extract was capable of inhibiting P.mirabilis and A. baumannii at respectively, 9.6 ± 0.0 mm to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm and7.0 ± 0.1 mm to 13.0 ± 0.1 mm. The MIC and MBC values of ethyl acetate and acetone extract were the same against Bacillus cereus and A.baumannii at 6.25 mg/ml and 1.563 mg/ml, respectively. As for Proteus mirabilis, the MBC value of acetone extract was eight times higher (6.25 mg/ml) than its MIC value at 0.781 mg/ml. Phytochemical screening showed that ethyl acetate extract indicated the presence of flavonoid and tannin whereas acetone extract contained terpenoid and tannin. In conclusion, acetone shell extract of seed from C. odontophyllum fruit showed promising antibacterial and thus, have great potential as an alternative phytotherapeutic treatment against infections associated with A. baumannii and P. mirabilis.

AB - The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol shell extracts of seed from C. odontophyllum fruit at 12.5 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml against two Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, clinical strain of Bacillus cereus and seven clinical strains of Gram-negative organisms; Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Shigellasonnei, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Proteus spp. and Acinetobacter baumannii. The highest yield (1.76 %) was obtained using methanol as extraction solvent despite showing no antibacterial activity. The extraction yield of acetone was 0.59 % whereas the lowest yield (0.29 %) was produced by ethyl acetate. From the antibacterial screening assay, the growth of Bacillus cereus was inhibited by ethyl acetate extract with inhibition zone ranging from 9.6 ± 0.1 mm to 14.6 ± 0.1 mm whereas the acetone extract was capable of inhibiting P.mirabilis and A. baumannii at respectively, 9.6 ± 0.0 mm to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm and7.0 ± 0.1 mm to 13.0 ± 0.1 mm. The MIC and MBC values of ethyl acetate and acetone extract were the same against Bacillus cereus and A.baumannii at 6.25 mg/ml and 1.563 mg/ml, respectively. As for Proteus mirabilis, the MBC value of acetone extract was eight times higher (6.25 mg/ml) than its MIC value at 0.781 mg/ml. Phytochemical screening showed that ethyl acetate extract indicated the presence of flavonoid and tannin whereas acetone extract contained terpenoid and tannin. In conclusion, acetone shell extract of seed from C. odontophyllum fruit showed promising antibacterial and thus, have great potential as an alternative phytotherapeutic treatment against infections associated with A. baumannii and P. mirabilis.

KW - Antimicrobial

KW - Canariumodontophyllum

KW - Disc diffusion

KW - Extraction yield

KW - MBC

KW - MIC

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